Annual Report 2005-2006
Meteorology, Mapping and Survey
India Meteorological Department
Advanced Technology Support
In order to modernize this RADAR network, one S-Band Doppler
Weather Radar Meteor 1500S imported from Germany was installed
at Visakhapatnam and likely to be commissioned by December
2005. Three Doppler Radars are already functioning round the
clock at Chennai, Kolkata and Machilipatnam. Schemes for replacing
4 numbers of old and obsolete radars by new Doppler Weather
Radars at Bhuj , Kochi , Mumbai and Paradeep have been approved
by Council of Meteorological and Atmospheric Sciences.
IMD is receiving and processing meteorological data from
Kalpana-I , INSAT-3A, and NOAA series of satellites for meteorological
analysis and weather forecasting. Apart from generating hourly
cloud imagery, INSAT Meteorological Data processing System
(IMDPS) produces following products from the data received:
a) Cloud Motion Vectors (CMVs).
b) Sea surface temperatures ( SST's)
c) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)
d) Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE)
A National Satellite Data Centre ( NSDC ) was commissioned
w.e.f. October 2005 for the archival and supply of INSAT imageries
and derived products to the users and research community through
a web portal.
For dissemination of Cyclone warnings to various State Governments,
port officials etc. 252 analogue and 100 digital Cyclone Warning
Dissemination System receivers have been installed in the
cyclone prone areas of east and west coasts. It is planned
to replace all the 252 analogue CWDS receivers by the Digital
CWDS by 2007 and increase the network to 400 CWDS.
The computer unit of NHAC is equipped with two computer systems
- Altix-350 and Origin-200. The computer system Altix-350
is being used for data processing, chart plotting & running
regional & meso-scale models. The Limited Area forecast
Model (LAM) and high resolution mesoscale model MM5 are run
on operational mode. Various numerical products and current
weather observations, weather summary, severe weather warning
etc. are put in the IMD website and updated in real-time.
The other system Origin 200 is being used to run Quasi Lagringian
Model (QLM) for operational cyclone track prediction and for
other development work.
Modernized Telecommunication Facilities
India Meteorological Department has a very extensive Telecommunication
network with a central hub in Mausam Bhavan, New Delhi and
five Regional Message Switching Centres at Delhi Airport,
Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Guwahati. NMTC (National Meteorological
Telecommunication Centre) in Mausam Bhavan acts as an RTH
(Regional Telecommunication Hub) of the GTS(Global Telecommunication
System ) of WMO. RTH, New Delhi is one of the 15 designated
RTHs and three WMCs on the MTN (Main Telecommunication Network
) of the GTS. As a designated centre, RTH. New Delhi has the
responsibility of collection of observational data from India,
Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Maldives
and adjoining sea and ocean areas. RTH. New Delhi maintains
12 point to point GTS links viz. Tokyo and Moscow (Frame Relay
), Karachi (64Kbps), Jeddah (64Kbps), Beijing (Frame Relay),
Cairo(100baud), Dhaka (9.6Kbps), Bangkok (50 baud), Colombo
(50 baud), Kathmandu (50 baud), Male (50 baud) and Yangon
(50 baud). Two more circuits New Delhi- Melbourne and New
Delhi-Muscat (Oman) are operating via the Internet. RTH. New
Delhi is in the process of upgradation of most of our low
speed circuits through internet and 64kbps leased circuits.
The Beijing and Jeddah circuits have been upgraded in 2005.
IMD's website (http://www.imd.ernet.in) and http://www.imd.gov.in
are operational and have become extremely popular amongst
the meteorological researchers and common public. All the
forecasting products like Charts, Warnings, Satellite Imageries,
Rainfall information are placed and timely updated in IMD's
website. Regional Meteorological Centers have internet facility
and their own websites.
This year Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) popularly
known as 'Weather on Phone' has been introduced which can
be conveniently accessed from anywhere in the country by dialing
Toll free No. 1600-180-1717 and weather for 150 cities is
available on this system. This is supported by systems at
Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata and they are providing
information in regional languages in addition to Hindi and
Three cyclonic storms formed over north Indian Ocean during
January - November, 2005; as given below:
Cyclonic Storm over Bay of Bengal (13-17
A low pressure area formed over southwest Bay of Bengal and
adjoining north Indian Ocean on January 12, 2005. It concentrated
into a depression on the evening of 13th near lat 5.50 N and
long. 87.00 E. The system remained practically stationary
and intensified into a deep depression on the morning of 14th
and then into a cyclonic storm on the morning of 15th. Subsequently
the system moved slowly westwards and lay centred near lat
5.50N and long 86.50E on the morning of 16th. Moving in a
west-southwesterly direction, the cyclonic storm weakened
into a deep depression on 17th morning near lat. 5.00 N and
long 86.00 E and subsequently into a depression on the same
afternoon and into a low-pressure area on the morning of 18th
January 2005 over the same place. This system did not cause
any significant rainfall and damage as it was far from Indian
Cyclonic Storm over Bay of Bengal (17-21
Another system developed as a low level cyclonic circulation
over central Bay of Bengal on 14th Sept., 2005. It intensified
into a depression on 17th morning near lat 20.00 N and long
90.50 E and into a cyclonic storm in the evening of 18th near
lat 19.50 N and long 86.50 E. The initial movement of the
system was northwestwards and then it took rather unusual
southwestward movement. The system crossed as cyclonic storm
in the morning of 19th close to Kalingapatnam in north coastal
Andhra Pradesh. On 22nd morning it was seen as a well marked
low pressure area over north Madhya Maharastra. It caused
heavy to very heavy rainfall over south Orissa, north coastal
Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharastra. It also caused death
of 64 persons and economic loss of Rs. 1809 crores in Andhra
Pradesh according to state government report.
Cyclonic Storm over Bay of Bengal (28 November
-02 December 2005)
The third cyclone formed as a well marked low pressure area
over south Andaman sea and adjoining southeast Bay of Bengal
on the morning of 27th November, 2005. It concentrated into
a depression on the morning of 28th and lay centred near Lat.10.5°
N and 90.5° E about 1150Km east south east of Chennai.
Moving in a westerly direction it intensified into a cyclonic
storm around mid night of 28th near Lat. 10.5°N and Long
88.0°E about 900 Km east-southeast of Chennai. Continuing
to move in a westerly direction it was located on the morning
of 29th near Lat 10.5°N and Long. 87.0°E. It was tracked
and the system was located near Lat 12.5°N and Long 84.0°E
about 400 Km east-southeast of Chennai till the morning of
1st December,2005. Thereafter the system weakened into a deep
depression on the same evening and further into a depression
on the early morning of 2nd December near Lat. 13.0°N
and Long. 82.5°E about 250 Km east of Chennai. This system
caused heavy to very heavy rainfall over north costal Tamilnadu
on 2nd and 3rd December causing floods.
- For the country as a whole, the seasonal rainfall from
1 June to 30 September 2005 was 99% of its long period average
- Among the four homogeneous regions, southwest monsoon
seasonal (June to September) rainfall over northeast India
was deficient by 20%. Southwest monsoon seasonal rainfall
over Central India, Northwest India and South Peninsula
was 110%, 90% and 112% of LPA respectively.
- During the season, rainfall was not well distributed
in time. Rainfall over the country was below normal (12%
below LPA) in June. However, monsoon was active in July
with excess rainfall (14% above LPA). Monsoon was subdued
in August with a large deficiency of 28% of LPA. In September
(rainfall +17% above LPA), monsoon became active again helping
a timely revival and improving the seasonal rainfall situation
over the country.
- Southwest monsoon seasonal (June-September) rainfall
was excess/normal in 32 out of 36 meteorological sub-divisions
and the remaining 4 subdivisions registered deficient rainfall.
- 72 % of the meteorological districts received excess/normal
rainfall whereas 26 % received deficient and only 2% received
scanty rainfall .
- Only one sub division (Jharkhand) experienced moderate
drought conditions (rainfall deficiency of 35%) at the end
of the season.
- Out of 525 meteorological districts, 88 districts (17%)
experienced moderate drought and 17 districts (3%) experienced
severe drought conditions at the end of the season.
- Out of the 168 meteorological districts which suffered
from drought conditions last year, as many as 113 districts
received normal/excess rainfall in this monsoon season,
but drought continued in 55 districts.
- IMD's long range forecasts for the monsoon onset over
Kerala and for the 2005 southwest monsoon season rainfall
over the country as a whole, central India and NW India
proved to be correct.
- A network comprising a large number of rain-gauge stations
are utilized under the District-wise Rainfall Monitoring
Scheme (DRMS). Based on the real time daily rainfall data,
weekly districtwise, sub-division-wise and state-wise rainfall
distribution summaries are prepared in the form of rainfall
tables and maps. This information is supplied to various
government agencies for official use.
- Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the Hydrology
Project Phase-II. It is proposed to install 1 (one) Radar,
20 AWS and 200 ARG under the project.
- To conduct glaciological studies, important information
on snow accumulation and snowmelt in the upper watersheds
of Himalayan rivers is being collected by ground observations.
For better possible observational network, 21 snow-gauges,
10 rain-gauges including One Class-I Departmental Observatory
have been installed in the Western Himalayas.
- A great earthquake of magnitude 7.4 on Richter scale
occurred on October 8, 2005 with its epicenter in Pakistan.
The earthquake was felt widely over a major part of the
northern India and also caused damage to property and loss
of life in some parts of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal
Pradesh. IMD is closely monitoring the after shock activity
in the area and information relating to aftershocks of magnitude
5.0 and the information above is being transmitted on a
regular basis to concerned government authorities.
- The Great Sumatra earthquake of 26th December 2004, the
Great Earthquake of Pakistan and the aftershocks thereof
were monitored by India Meteorological Department (IMD)
on a continual basis and information related to earthquake
occurrences of magnitude >= 5.0 were transmitted to Ministry
of Home Affairs (MHA) and other Government agencies related
with disaster management activities.
- IMD is operating five temporary seismological observatories
for precise monitoring of aftershocks activity in the region.
The seismological observatory at Port Blair was also upgraded
by deploying digital broadband seismograph systems.
- An inter-institutional scientific report on great Sumatra
earthquake of 2004 has been brought out which summarizes
the various investigations carried out by different departments
in the country.
- As part of Early Warning System for Tsunami and Storm
Surges in Indian Ocean being set up by Government of India,
IMD is in the process of setting up a 17-Station Real Time
Seismic Monitoring Network. The specifications for the system
have been finalized and tenders floated.
- The scientists from Iceland visited India during 13-25
November, 2005 to share their experiences in the field of
Earthquake Prediction and Early Warning System and identify
potential areas for bilateral cooperation.
- As part of Indo-Russian Centre for Earthquake Research
(IRCER) established in IMD, a total of 17 projects are being
implemented by various institutions in the country. IMD
is involved in as many as 7 projects.
- Action for setting up 20 new seismological observatories
and up-gradation of 20 existing seismological observatories
has been initiated.
Air Pollution Monitoring
With a view to document the long-term changes in composition
of trace species of the atmosphere as a result of changing
land use pattern, tremendous increase in vehicular traffic
and excessive combustion of fossil fuel, India Meteorological
Department, o/o ADGM(R), Air Pollution Section maintains a
network of ten Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) stations of regional
category. At these stations chemical composition of precipitation
and atmospheric turbidity is studied.
The following programmes are being carried out to improve
our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to organise
assessment in support of formulating environmental policy:
Precipitation Chemistry Program: Wet only precipitation
samples, collected at GAW stations, are sent to Central Chemical
laboratory at Pune where these are analysed for pH, conductivity,
major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, NH4) and major anions (SO4,
Atmospheric Turbidity Program: Atmospheric Turbidity
which indicates the columnar aerosol load of the atmosphere
is measured at:
i) 7 GAW stations (Allahabad, Jodhpur, Kodaikanal, Nagpur,
Port-Blair, Srinagar & Pune)
ii) 3 GAW stations (Mohanbari, Minicoy, Visakhapatnam) using
Antarctic Scientific Programme
Two member IMD team left for participating in the 25th Antarctic
Expedition. The Technical Report for the 22nd Antarctic Expedition
team had already sent to NCAOR, Goa for publication. Two IMD
team members for 24th IAE had been working at Antarctica.
Ocean Research Cruise
Marine Section of IMD maintains Voluntary Observing Fleet,
through six Port Meteorological Offices viz: Kolkata, Visakhapatnam,
Chennai, Kochi, Goa, and Mumbai. Ships of Merchant Navy, Indian
Navy and Foreign Navy are recruited in IVOF. Meteorological
Observations from ocean area are being collected on real time
basis for operational forecasting and the scrutinized data
is archived for climatological purpose.
- Under VOSCLIM Project of WMO, IMD recruited 20 ships
of Indian origin to participate in the above Programme to
collect quality data on High Seas and transmit them on real
- Necessary training was given for recording and transmitting
meteorological observations for Antarctica Expedition team.
- Excellent Awards in the form of books and Certificate
of Merit were given to ships' officers, for their meritorious
meteorological work, who are involved in collecting routine
as well as valuable Meteorological information from High
- Marine section also co-ordinates various ongoing WMO
programmes like Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), Global
Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS), Marine Pollution
Emergency Responses Support System (MPERSS) and Ships of
Opportunity (SOT), etc.
- A list of selected Supplementary and Auxiliary ships
was sent to WMO for publication in WMO publication No. 47.
- Ship Weather Code book 2005 were prepared and distributed
to various Port Meteorological Offices for onward dispatch
to IVOF ships.
Positional Astronomical Centre
The objective of the centre is to provide a unified National
calendar, both for civil as well as religious purposes. During
the year, the centre organized sky viewing programme through
telescopes, delivered popular lectures in astronomy in different
institutions and published the following 16 annual publications:
- Indian Astronomical Ephemeris which provides authentic
data on celestial objects for academicians, research scholars
and scientists in the filed of astronomy and astrophysics.
- Rashtriya Panchang in 14 languages which also provides
authentic data of Panchang elements, calculated on the basis
of science of astronomy.
- Tables of Sunrise-Sunset and Moonrise-Moonset.
The centre also meets up the specific data requirements of
large number of user agencies like lunar data for prediction
of tides for Survey of India, Sun-Moon rise/set data for a
large number of places for newspapers, judiciary, religious
bodies, defence and scientific bodies, eclipse phenomena for
scientific researchers and general public etc.
Apart from English edition, in house DTP composition work
for preparation of manuscript of Hindi and Bengali edition
of Rashtriya Panchang with a view to make improved get up
of the books and error free printing are in progress. Development
of computer programs for generation of data, which are being
computed manually, are also in progress.
- Implementation of Nirayana calendar in Rashtriya Panchang
: - As per recommendation in the final report of Peer Review
Committee, a separate all India Nirayana Calendar in terms
of Kali Era has been complied and newly introduced in Rashtriya
- Indigenous generation of data for publishing in Indian
Astronomical Ephemeris : Most of the data for the publication
are being generated indigenously and relevant computer programs
have been developed accordingly.
Environmental Monitoring Unit
The Environmental Meteorology Unit (EMU) provided Environmental
Appraisal, Exper Assessment and Consultancy in Mining activities.
Regular monitoring of meteorological parameters is also carried
out at Meteorological observatory, Taj Mahal, Agra (U.P.)
and data sent to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and
Ministry of Environment & Forests New Delhi.
Climate Related Environment Monitoring (CREM), a programme
of Department of Science & Technology is being implemented
by IMD at Hill Campus, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture
& Technology, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal (Uttranchal) for
monitoring of Green House Gases (GHGs) and Sky Radiometer
has been installed at Delhi.
Meteorological Data Supply
The meteorological data are exchanged nationally as well
as internationally as per WMO commitment. NDC supplies various
types of data demanded by the users within and outside the
country. NDC has been the nodal office for the fourth consecutive
time entrusted with the preparation of World Weather Records
(WWR) for the RAII region and recently has sent WWR for the
period 1991-2000 to NOAA/NCDC, USA.
The meteorological data for about 125 years amounting to
96.3 million records have been digitized and archived on the
hard disk of computer system VAX-4000/300 and Compaq system.
Approx., 30 different types of data each containing 3-4 formats
are available in NDC. During the year, 268 million records
were retrieved and supplied to users.
(i) IMD has been providing meteorological services for Aviation
to AAI at the airports. Signing of Memorandum of Understanding
with AAI for reimbursement of the cost of Aviation Met. Services
being rendered by IMD at the airports, is under consideration.
(ii) IMD has been providing weather forecasting services
to ONGC Ltd.
(iii) Design storm studies are being conducted to study rainfall
magnitude and its time distribution for use as a main input
for design engineers in estimating design flood for hydraulic
structures, irrigation projects, dams etc. on various rivers.
Technology Demonstration Projects
The Limited Area Model (LAM) forecast is being produced regularly
in respect of 00 UTC and 12 UTC observations for day-to-day
operational use. The Quasi-lagrangian Model (QLM) model is
run to produce track forecasts based on the initial conditions
of each day based on 00 UTC and 12 UTC observations when the
disturbance is in cyclonic storm stage. The Limited Area Forecast
System (LAFS) model has been updated (from 36 to 72 hours)
to get six hourly track forecasts valid upto 72 hours. The
forecast graphic outputs of these models are made available
in IMD Web site. IMD also runs non-hydrostatic mesoscale model
MM-5 in operational mode. For Storm Surge Prediction, Dynamical
Storm Surge model of IIT Delhi has been made operational.
Agricultural Forecast and Advisories
The Agricultural Meteorology Division provides technical
assistance to the cooperating institutions for site selection,
training of personnel, calibration of instruments and their
maintenance, scrutiny of data, etc. The major on going activities
of the Division during 2005 are as follows.
a) Agromet Advisory Service (AAS) bulletins were prepared
weekly/ biweekly at 21 Agromet Advisory Service units in the
country and broadcast by AIR stations in the respective regions
in regional languages and also telecasts wherever the facilities
b) Comprehensive Agromet Advisory Service bulletins for all
states of the country on weekly basis are being prepared and
issued to various users of State and Central Government offices.
c) Consolidated biweekly All India Agromet Advisory Bulletins
were prepared by AAS (HQ), Pune.
d) All India monthly weather and crop bulletins were regularly
issued from AAS unit (HQ), Pune to different users.
e) Agromet observations and pilot balloon ascent are taken
regularly at CAgMO Pune.
Some other activities of this division during the years are:
a) Conducted experiments and evolved techniques for better
understanding of processes by which weather and climate affect
crop growth and yield and the incidence of crop pests and
b) Developed pest weather calendar for various pests for
operational crop protection. Prepared the revised crop weather
calendars for the important crops grown in various districts
of the country.
c) Studied the water use by crop and its irrigation planning
for dry farming tract of India.
Modernisation of CAgMO and 3 ARU's at Anand,
Bangalore and Rahuri
Prime objective was to develop Crop Growth Simulation Model
and Crop Yield Forecasting system using Meteorological as
well as Biological parameters recorded with the help of electronic
instruments .One set of photosynthesis meter and Infrared
thermometer was procured and field experiment was taken up.
Application of Remote Sensing technology
to Agricultural Meteorology
Aim was to generate crop specific and area specific Agromet
Advisories containing more precise information for farmers/users
which is not possible by using conventional data.
Crop Yield Forecasting
This was made for different crop growth simulation models
which predict the growth development and yield of crops as
a function of genotype (variety), weather variations and soil
conditions of crop management practices.
Weather based forewarning models
Important pest observations were recorded in experimental
fields of various agricultural Institutes/ Universities for
development of weather based pest models for operational crop
- Meteorological Services for aviation were continued for
National and International flights for safe and efficient
operations. A Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centre (TCAC) was
also function at HQ New Delhi to provide advisory information
on tropical cyclones.
- World Area Forecast System (WAFS) Products have been
introduced for briefing and documentation of international
and national (trunk routes) flights. Computerised Automatic
Message Switching System (AMSS) having facilities like automatic
plotting, preparation of aviation flight folder Dual Base
Line Transmissometer, Laser Ceilometer and Digital distant
Indicating Wind equipment, have been installed at some of
Flood Meteorological Support
IMD has established 10 Flood Met. Offices, located at Ahmedabad,
Asansol, Agra, Bhubaneswar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jalpaiguri,
Lucknow, New Delhi and Patna in the flood prone areas. During
the flood season each FMO daily provides hydromet bulletins
containing information on Prevailing Synoptic Situation; Heavy
Rainfall Warning; Quantitative Precipitation Forecast catchmentwise
/ subcatchmentwise; and Areal precipitation occurred during
the past 24-hours catchmentwise / subcatchmentwise. to Flood
Units of CWC for flood forecasting purposes.
The Research Unit monitors all the research work done in
India Meteorological Department. During the period, 10 new
projects of different RMCs/MCs. have been given approval.
Some of the research activities include:
(i) Computerized data base and derived products on Statistics
of Cyclones and
(ii) Depressions over Indian Seas, 1891-2004.
(iii) Weakening of cyclonic storms over North Indian Ocean
(iv) Increasing and decreasing trends in the frequency of
occurrence of cyclonic disturbances (D&C) over North Indian
(v) Mesoscale systems arising due to shearing of intense
synoptic systems like cyclones using satellite images.
(vi) Arc clouds and satellite pictures over NW India- A case
(vii) Evolution of 'Warm Pool' in the southeast Arabian Sea
and its association with Summer Monsoon onset.
(viii) Study of ENSO-Summer Monsoon-SST-Sea Level relationships
(ix) Development of District level value-added ensemble forecast
(x) Diurnal variation of NE Monsoon rainfall over coastal
Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh during October to January.
(xi) A project on Mean OLR distribution around a cyclonic
disturbance over Indian Seas during post monsoon season, based
on INSAT OLR data of 2000,2001 & 2002.
(xii) Probable causes of intensification and weakening of
cyclonic storms emerging from NW Pacific to north Indian Ocean.
(xiii) A study on northward transportation of energy and
momentum flux over Indian land mass and North Indian Ocean
in northward and westward moving storms.
(xiv) Estimation of Cyclone Risk Index based on Met. Parameters
and the Socio-Economic conditions in different coastal belts.
(xv) A project on Paleo Seismology in Southern India.
(xvi) A study to estimate the probable maximum storm surge
over East Coast of India is in progress.
Drought Research work
The Drought Research Unit has used criteria to define a meteorological
drought based on rainfall deficiency on sub-division wise
basis for the country.
The Crop Yield Formulation Unit has developed empirical statistical
models for preparing preharvest monthly crop production forecast
for kharif rice for 15 states and total rice production. These
are sent to Department of Economics & Statistics, Government
Earthquake Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC)
Studies on seismic hazard and risk microzonation of NCT Delhi
are in progress. First level seismic microzonation of NCT
Delhi in 1:50,000 scale has been completed and further study
in 1:10,000 scale is in progress. As per first level seismic
microzonation, NCT Delhi has been divided into three hazard
level (Low, medium and high) and hazard levels have further
been divided into nine micro-zones of likely uniform seismic
hazard and ground response pattern.
Following projects have been taken by EREC:
Long Term Projects
- Creation of National Database for topographic, cultural
and Demographic themes
- Seismotectonics & Evaluation of Regional Seismic
hazard; updating Seismotectonic Atlas of India with inputs
on seismicity (source: NDC,IMD) ; identification of different
causative faults and assigning weightage factor by ascertaining
the potential of the respective faults.
- Creation of Intensity point data (IPD) Map: Source National
agencies; updating through web based interaction ("
Did you feel earthquake?"); creation of facility for
continuous monitoring of earthquake related news and it's
- Creation of data base for building typologies based on
vulnerability Atlas of India
- Educative earthquake awareness program.
- Documentary on earthquake hazard, special concern with
- Publication of a quarterly magazine on earthquake research
and disaster mitigation with section in vernacular and should
be disseminated on net also.
- Enriching EREC library by including books, reports etc
prepared by different organizations on several renowned
earthquakes through interaction with international and world
Short Term Projects
- Establishment of the EDAKH (Database, Knowledge Products
and advisory Hub).
- Methodology for Microzonation: standardization and preparation
- Generation of database for planning Microzonation of
identified cities (38).
- Providing coordination to Delhi Microzonation-collation
and generation of data and final product generation.
- Finalization of Document on Seismic Hazard and Risk Microzonation
of Jabalpur, MP.
- The standardization of the methodology of the site characterization
and liquefaction study at Delhi , in collaboration with
CSMRS, WIHG and CSMACS.
- Establishment of EREC Database and Knowledge products
Hub(EDAKH), to develop fail-proof information system for
ready collation primary data from various National sources,
their archival, availability and retrieval& to provide
Earthquake related knowledge products.
- Setting up VSAT Telemetry Network in NE India.
- Upgrading of Delhi Seismic network with 8 more field
station in a radius of 80 km.
Visit of foreign delegation
(i) A two Member Scientific delegation from Iceland visited
India Meteorological Department, New Delhi 13-27 November
2005 to share their experience in the field of Earthquakes
Prediction & Early Warning System and also identify potential
areas for bilateral cooperation between India and Iceland.
(ii) Mr. M. Saho, Chief Fellowship Director, Education &
Training Department., WMO Geneva visited Regional Meteorological
Training Centre at Pune & New Delhi during 22-28 January
International meetings and conferences
National Centre for Medium Range Weather
- IMD hosted 32nd Session of WMO/ESCAP Panel of Tropical
Cyclones during 21-26 February 2005 at New Delhi.
- IMD has organized an Indian Ocean Rim - Association of
Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) Working on Disaster Mitigation
& Management - Tropical Cyclones & related issues
at TERIRETREAT, Gurgaon during 16-17 March 2005.
- An International Conference on MONEX & its Legacy
of MONEX-79 was organized by Indian Meteorological Society
during 3-7 February 2005 at New Delhi.
- A Brainstorming meeting on Long Range Forecast (LRF)
was held on 11th March 2005 under the Chairmanship of Secretary
- A Brainstorming meeting to discuss the prospects of southwest
monsoon 2005 was held under the Chairmanship of Secretary
DST in New Delhi on 5th June 2005.
NCMRWF has been working on continuous development of 'Numerical
Weather Prediction Models' and is providing meteorological
forecasts for agro-advisory purposes and also for other many
special situations. The NWP system implemented on real-time
at the NCMRWF consists basically a complete suite of job sequences
made to run on main computing systems to produce weather forecasts
as per the user requirements. Various components of the system
are as follows:
- Scheme for generating Data Base of decoded meteorological
- Quality control and pre-processing of decoded meteorological
- Data Assimilation (run intermittently at 6-hrly cycles)
- Forecast Model [global spectral model with triangular truncation
of 80 Waves in the horizontal and 18 levels in the vertical(T80L18)
- Scheme for generating data base of post-processed NWP products
(graphical and digital output; verification and archiving)
- Statistical interpretation model for NWP output to obtain
location specific forecast for different agro-climatic zones.
Major Scientific Achievements and Highlights
- Latest version of NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM97)
was installed in CRAY SV1 computer and was experimentally
run for 7 days nesting with T80 global spectral model.
- An ensemble prediction system with the T80/L18 model
was implemented. This system helps in judging the factors
of uncertainty in the forecast.
- A comprehensive study of Orissa Super cyclone using the
MM5 mesoscale model is carried out. Various sensitivity
experiments involving different cumulus parameterization
and PBL schemes are completed and the results are communicated
to MAUSAM for the special issue. This paper also gives a
detailed account of (i) all the other modelling studies
(GCM) on the Orissa Super Cyclone carried out at NCMRWF
(ii) impact of satellite observations and (iii) limitations
of Gems and importance of use of mesoscale models for Tropical
Cyclone Track/ intensity predictions.
- Series of high resolution (10 km) experiments are carried
out using the meso-scale model MM5 with initial and boundary
conditions from (i) UKMO (ii) NCEP/AVN and also (iii)T80
and MM5- 3DVAR. Day-1 and Day-2 forecasts show improved
rainfall amounts and distribution compared to the operational
case. Best results comparing closely with the observations
are obtained in experiment with UKMO initialization with
rainfall amounts exceeding 80cm in 24-hour forecast.
- Prepared Extended Range Monsoon Prediction jointly with
SAC, Ahmedabad using 10 ensemble members (initial condition
23 to 29 Aug). Forecasts were provided to IMD.
- The wind observations derived from Doppler Weather Radar
of Chennai and Kolakata are being examined for feasibility
of assimilating them into the Mesoscale model. Ten cases
of severe convective systems have been chosen for this purpose.
Investigations are being carried out to simulate the systems
using (1) control forecast with GSFC cloud microphysics,
(2) 3DVAR assimilation of various surface and upper air
observations including those from satellites and (3) wind
profiles derived from the Doppler Radar. Three out of the
ten cases have been completed.
- The Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model with 30 km
horizontal resolution and 31 levels in the vertical had
been installed and successfully test run with 180 seconds
time step. Exercises are underway for (i) development of
interface for using the T80 output for WRF and (ii) Testing
and running of the WRF with 3D variational assimilation
- The 1-D uncoupled land surface model, Noah-LSM, has been
acquired from NCEP and test run successfully on CRAY SV1.
Efforts are on to run the model on global grid in par with
operational T80 model.
- The METEOSAT-5 rainfall data is being examined for its
suitability to use as daily rain-analysis over India region.
- 22km-Eta was re-run with inputs from UKMO model for reassessment
of the 27-28 October, 2005 cyclonic system.
Workshops / Brainstorming sessions
NCMRWF organized a two day International Brain storming meeting
on "Modeling and Prediction over Indian Monsoon Region:
vision 2015" during 1-2 Feb 2005.
NCMRWF organized a two-day preparatory meeting for International
Roundtable on "Understanding and Prediction of Summer
and Winter Monsoon" to commemorate 50th Year of Bandung
Afro-Asian meeting. A delegation from Indonesia led by Ir.
Sri Woro B. Harijono, Deputy for Data and Information System,
BMG, Indonesia was major participant. Scientists from from
various organizations in India have also participated.
A 3-day BIMSTEC meeting on Weather and Climate was organized
at NCMRWF. In this meeting about 60 scientists and scientific
managers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka,
and Thailand participated. Myanmar could not participate.
Scientists from a number of research institutes in India also
participated and made presentations. At the end of the meeting,
recommendations were framed and forwarded to the International
Division of DST for further necessary action.
One-day discussion meeting was organized on 6th September
2005 at NCMRWF on, "Joint Indo-US project on land falling
tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal".
i. Latest version of NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM97)
was installed in CRAY SV1 computer and was experimentally
run for 7 days nested with T80 global spectral model. The
model was initially set up at a resolution of 50 Km with 18
vertical levels. The model domain covers most of the Himalayas.
The medium range forecasts by RSM97 were found to be encouraging.
Efforts are on to increase the resolution and further improve
the forecast of mesoscale weather features.
ii. Twenty-four (24) new Agromet Advisory Units have been
opened enhancing the all India network of AAS units to 107.
iii. In order to facilitate better lead time, the users of
our products are provided with early forecast runs of T80/L18
global model. These forecast products for current date are
available to the users online around 2PM. A separate web link
to these products is provided at NCMRWF web site www.ncmrwf.gov.in.
iv. An MOU for joint INDO-US collaborative project had been
signed between Secretary, DST and President, UCAR. NCMRWF
from India and NCAR from USA shall steer a joint demonstration
experiment on "Track and intensity of tropical cyclones
over Bay of Bengal". In this project, WRF model of NCAR
shall be the main component. It shall be implemented on NCMRWF
computer system. NCMRWF shall also steer the climate modeling
v. A 3-day BIMSTEC meeting on Weather and Climate was organized
at NCMRWF. In this meeting about 60 scientists and scientific
managers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka,
and Thailand participated
vi. A collaborative effort is started with Geological Survey
of India with its northern region office located at Lucknow
to provide appropriate weather inputs (mainly rainfall) for
landslide forewarning over identified vulnerable zones (Himalayas;
NE regions and Western Ghats).
vii. The 1-D uncoupled land surface model, Noah-LSM, has
been acquired from NCEP and test run successfully on CRAY
SV1. Efforts are on to run the model on global grid in par
with operational T80 model.
viii. NCMRWF had been included as a partner in the development
of a Indicative Drought Management Plan by the National Institute
of Disaster Management (NIDM), Min. of Home Affairs, New Delhi.
Issue of weather forecast to Agromet Advisory
Service (AAS) Units
Daily forecasts with a temporal range of 4 days were issued
for cloud cover, maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speed
and direction and rainfall to 107 Agromet Advisory Units twice
a week. In addition, weekly cumulative rainfall forecast were
also supplied to crop weather watch groups.
Feedback to the Ministry of Agriculture
All India weekly weather forecasts were supplied to crop
weather watch group, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation,
Ministry of Agriculture on every Monday. Review of weather
vis-à-vis different crop situation all over country
during the previous week and fore-view of weather sensitive
crop scenario for the forthcoming week were facilitated by
the participation in the group discussions every Monday at
the Ministry of Agriculture.
An extensive agro-advisory covering all the agro-meteorological
zones of the country was prepared for the use of all the functional
Agro-meteorological Forecasting Units (AMFU) and all other
user agencies. The agro-advisory explicitly included regional
weather forecast in relation to all possible cropping patterns
over different regions of the country. The bulletins were
circulated to all the users during monsoon season.
Daily Weather Forecast
Daily weather forecast products from operational T80 global
data assimilation and forecast system were provided to IMD,
Indian Air Force, Directorate of Oceanography and Meteorology,
Indian Navy, Indian Army and Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment
of DRDO. Besides, daily forecast for strategic locations were
also issued to Indian Army.
Feed for KISAN channel
The KISAN channel launched by Ministry of Agriculture and
coordinated by IGNOU were provided with weeklong scenario
on current weather situation, agro-climatic zone specific
synoptic weather bulletin and all India consolidated agro-advisory.
These weeklong forecasts were issued 4 times a week starting
from Monday through Thursday.
Web Based Services
- The district level forecast system developed for about
440 stations over India has been linked to NCMRWF web page.
- Deterministic weather forecast for all district headquarters
of India and implemented on operational basis. This service
is not available for all stations currently.
- Information on detailed weather systems likely to prevails
during the next 5 days including temperature and rainfall
forecast for metropolitan cities had been started
Weather Forecast for Special Events
NCMRWF had been poured with requests for issue of weather
forecast for special events of scientific and national importance.
The highlights of weather forecast issued for such events
- Provided detailed forecast to the Indian Army for the Shisha
Pangma mountaineering expedition. The mountaineering group
has appreciated the forecast for its accuracy as they reportedly
experienced the forecast conditions while scaling the summit.
- Special Frontier Force that comprised of 4 women officials
successfully climbed up the peak of Gangotri - I on 29th May
2005 taking the NCMRWF forecast during the entire period of
their expedition. The H.E. President of India had invited
officers of NCMRWF on 27th June at Rashtrapati Bhavan along
with team members of Indian Army Women Expedition to Mount
Everest who availed NCMRWF weather advisory all along the
route to summit.
- "NWP course for Indian Navy personnel" was organized
from 26.9.2005 to 07.10.2005. The course exposes the trainees
to the state of the art theoretical and practical aspects
of numerical weather prediction.
- A training programme on 'Dynamic Crop simulation model
based DSS and its use in AAS' was held during 7-18 November,
National and International Collaborations
i. Extended Range Prediction: Collaborated with Space
Application Centre (SAC) alongside other agencies in the program
of Meteorology & Oceanography Program organized by SAC
and contributed in extended range prediction of monsoon 2004.
ii. Nuclear Emergency Warning: The hourly interval
high resolution (10 km) 3-day forecasts from MM5 for four
nuclear sites of Department of Atomic Energy (Narora, Trombay,
Kaiga and Kalpakkam) were made operational for exclusive use
of BARC as a part of Nuclear Emergency warning system.
iii. The CEOP: The Coordinated Enhanced Observing
Period (CEOP) was an international collaborative project under
the umbrella of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment
(GEWEX) of WMO. NCMRWF had been participating in CEOP by providing
the model output from its operational version of the Global
Analysis-Forecast System (T80/L18)for the EOP4 period. The
CEOP workshop held at Tokyo, Japan during 28-02-04 to 04-03-2005
had been attended.
iv. Collaboration with NCEP: MOU has been signed for
enhanced collaboration with NCEP, USA in order to augment
the existing cooperation. The enhanced program includes participation
in development of new forecast system, visitor programme,
transfer of technology, and joint research on Indian monsoon
and high impact weather.
v. Collaboration with NCAR: NCMRWF from India and
NCAR from USA shall steer a joint demonstration experiment
on track and intensity of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal.
In this project, WRF model of NCAR shall be the main component.
It shall be implemented on NCMRWF computer system. NCMRWF
shall also steer the climate modeling collaborative program.
vi. Collaboration with GSI: A collaborative effort
is started with Geological Survey of India to provide appropriate
weather inputs (mainly rainfall) for landslide forewarning
over identified vulnerable zones (Himalayas; NE regions and
National Atlas And Thematic Mapping
The Organization headed by a Director and assisted by two
Joint Directors and seven Deputy Directors, has a total strength
of 462 which includes a large number of qualified professional
geographers and cartographers, perhaps the largest number
under one roof in the world. It is a premier organization
in the field of preparation of thematic maps for the country.
Its major functions are:
- Compilation of the National Atlas of India in English
- Preparation of National Atlas Maps in regional languages;
- Preparation of thematic maps based on research studies
on environment and associated aspects and their impact on
social and economic development;
- Installation of Automated Mapping System for increasing
efficiency in mapping; and
- Geographical/Cartographical research and training.
Targets and Achievements for the Year 2005-2006
Name of the Programme
Target 2005-2006 by number of maps
|Revision of National Atlas
|District Planning Map Series
|State Atlas of Uttar Pradesh
|State Atlas of Bihar
|State Atlas of Madhya Pradesh
|Cultural & Heritage Atlas
|State Atlas of Jharkhand
|School Atlas for Visually Impaired
|State Atlas of Chhattisgarh
|State Atlas of Uttaranchal (Hindi)
|District Infrastructure and Communication
|Electronic Atlas of India
The Organization opened stalls with sales provision on NATMO
Maps/ Atlases in 21 exhibitions and Book Fairs all over India.
Altogether 22 scientific papers have been presented by NATMO
Officers and Members of Staff at different seminars held in
different parts of the country.
NATMO DMS Building Complex
It is a fully automatic Digital Mapping Section of NATMO,
equipped with modern state-of-art technologies related to
GIS, GPS & RS System. It is meant for specific value added
digital output, training and research etc.
Seven Officers and Members of Staff of NATMO have been trained
in the Courses/Workshops held at Jadavpur University, Kolkata;
NRSA, Hyderabad; and other places during the period.
Revenue Generated during 2004-2005
a) During the period from April 2004 to March 2005, the Organization
has generated a revenue of Rs. 10,82,600/- (Rupees ten lakh
eighty two thousand and six hundred) only through selling
of various maps, atlases and monographs etc.
b) NATMO has earned Rs. 1,56,000/- (Rupees one lakh fifty-six
thousand) only as course fee for different Training Courses
conducted during this period.
Survey of India
Spatial data plays very significant role in the planning
for economic upliftment of the common man, development of
the security of the nation. Survey of India, the National
Mapping agency of Government of India, has the unique responsibility
of providing timely, cost effective and accurate spatial data
to the Geo-spatial community. In this prominent role, the
Department ensures that the country's domain is explored and
mapped suitably to meet the emerging needs of the information
market. Survey of India has been reorganised into state level
Geo-spatial Data Centres (GDCs) to meet the demands of the
users in various sections of the society.
Digital technology occurred with revolutionary change in
use of computer for handling of information through Geographical
Information system, has changed the outlook in the method
of collection of spatial data, it's analysis and use. In view
of the new technologies in Geo-spatial industries, the newly
created GDCs have been established to acquire DATA from satellite
imagery and provide GIS solutions to various users. Survey
of India, with upto date technology, has entered the market
with analogue and digital products, to meet the needs of variety
of users. Updating the existing Digital topographic data base
on 1:50,000 scale using remotely sensed inputs combined with
ground truth checking, to becompleted with in the time target,
is the first and foremost task, in hand. Simultaneously, to
meet the demands of the society for digital data to create
vehicle navigation system for metros is another priority job,
the Department has taken up, besides the normal Geodetic,
Geophysical and development surveys. Geomagnetic, gravity,
dam deformation and crustal movement studies, collection,
analysis and dissemination of tidal data, are the other important
allied research areas where the Department has been providing
useful information to all sections of the society.
Technology Development Projects
i) The following activities to bring out two series of topographical
maps based on WGS-84 datum are going on in full swing:
- Determination of transformation parameters between Everest
Spheroid Datum and WGS-84 Datum using GPS technology.
- Digital Data base has been created for the entire country
on scale 1:50,000, 1:250,000 and on 1:25,000 scale for part
ii) ALTM Technology for the preparation of Digital Elevation
models has been introduced in Survey of India.
iii) The following other projects based on latest available
technologies have been taken up :
- Generation of GPS compatible maps for navigation purpose
for seven metros - Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore,
Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.
- GIS based digital mapping of 70 Towns of Uttaranchal
state on 1:4,000 scale.
- Mapping and generation of GIS data base on 1:10,000,
1:2000 scale and utility maps on 1:1000 scale in respect
of 137 cities / towns under the scheme of "National
Urban Information System" (NUIS) a National Mission
programme of Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India
has been awarded to Survey of India.
- A project on generation of Village Information System
(VIS) i.e. administrative boundaries up to village level
and integration of socio-demographic data, infrastructure
data and topographical data for various state of the country.
The data has already been delivered to some agencies namely
planning commission, NIC and Election Commission and IB
for planning and monitoring of their activities.
- Digital Mapping of Bamboo resources showing different
species of Bamboos in North Eastern regions.
- Digital Mapping of "National Parks and Wild Life
Sanctuary" alongwith GIS on scale 1:25,000 under NNRMS
- Digital mapping of 57 Urban Local Bodies (ULB) of Karnataka
state on scale 1:4,000 for providing GIS and Municipal Information
System (MIS) of Nirmal Nagar Project.
- Provision of Digital Data to Ministry of Communication
& other projects.
- Replacement of Analogue Photogrammetry with Digital Photogrammetry.
- Control Survey in the Tsunami affected areas by GPS is
Basic Research Projects
Different methods and techniques are being developed for
mapping using latest available instruments and technologies
such as Total Stations, GPS integrated with tablet PC &
mapping S/W etc.
Use of various Image processing softwares is being explored
in Survey of India for digitisation of maps.
Attempts are in progress for the creation of GIS and LIS
using Remote sensing, GPS and existing techniques of Surveying
i) Updation of Topographical maps using satellite imageries
of various resolutions. assessing their accuracies.
ii) Survey of India had signed an MOU with M/s EICHER Good
Earth Limited for commercialization of SOI's products. As
per the agreement M/s EICHER Good Earth Limited had taken
a project of preparing all India Road Atlas on SOI digital
data. All India Road Atlas is ready for launching. M/s EICHER
Good Earth Limited had also developed GIS based on SOI data
for city of Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad.
(iii) Planning Commission has conceptualized a project of
Computer aided digital mapping of metro cities through National
Informatics Centre (NIC), Department of Information Technology,
Government of India, New Delhi. NIC has placed order for supply
of computer aided digital mapping data for 3 cities, Ahmedabad,
Chennai and Mumbai on scale 1:1000.
(iv) The project "Virtual India" is a collective
effort between the Survey of India (SOI) and Microsoft Research
Lab Private India (MSR. India) which enable the SOI to make
Survey data available over the Internet in useful and innovative
Technology Demonstration Projects Undertaken
in the Area of Socio-Economic Development
(i) Topographical activities
(a) Control Work:
- Topo Triangulation (by GPS) .. 630 sq km
- Aerial Triangulation ... 51,340 sq km
- Traverse ... 1,290 lin km
- Levelling ... 4,410 lin km
- Photogrammetric surveys on various scales ... 3,568 sq
- Ground surveys on various scales ... 254,762 sq km
- Boundary demarcation
250 lin km
- Verification surveys for IAF .... 19,3600 sq km
(c) Fair Mapping:
- Topographical ... 2,48,500 sq km
- Digital Mapping ... 536 maps
- Printing of various types of maps ... 1188 Maps
(ii) Digitisation and creation of Digital
- Departmental on various scales ... 1800 Maps
- Extra Departmental on various scales ... 500 Maps
(iii) Geodetic and Geophysical surveys:
a) Geodetic surveys for monitoring of constructional progress
of various developmental projects are in progress.
b) During the year, Survey of India is committed to carry
out the following tasks as departmental commitment:
- GPS observations - 200 stations
- Precision Levelling - 2150 lin km
- EDM Traverse - 150 lin km
- Gravity observations - 600 stations
- Gravity on Bench Marks - 50 stations
- Geomagnetic repeat observations - 60 stations
- Astro Azimuth - 500 stations
- Installation of Tide Gauges - 6 ports
(iv) Research Highlights
i) Pilot study project for the "Real Time Date Transmission"
has been carried out at Vishakhapatnam Port and Cochin Port,
Central Hub was replicated at ECIL, Hyderabad. Exercise was
ii) Survey of India continued participating in Indian Antarctic
iii) Papers on various aspects of Surveying and the related
technologies have been presented by Maj. Gen M. Gopal Rao,
Surveyor General of India and also by other officers of Survey
of India at different national and international platforms.
i) Boundaries Demarcation
Demarcation, Relocation and Construction of boundary pillars
and preparation of Strip-Maps of various international and
inter-state boundaries remained in progress during the year.
ii) Topographical Surveys
a) Surveys on various large scales are being taken up on
selective basis according to the priorities indicated by the
Central/ State Governments and other user communities.
b) Most of the maps on the primary scale of 1:50K covering
the entire country have been digitised. Revision surveys for
updating these maps are in progress.
c) Maps on 1:250 K scales covering the entire country have
been digitised and updation of these maps is in progress.
d) Compilation of various Geographical maps, State maps,
Guide maps etc. are being continuously carried out.
iii) Digital Cartography
Digitization of 5,000 out of 5,108 on 1:50,000 scale and
1091 maps out of 19,540 maps on 1:25,000 scale has been completed.
iv) Printing and Publication
Other than the regular publication of the topographical maps
on various scales and Geographical maps, Guide maps, District
Planning maps etc. the following publications were also brought
a) Printing of 200 (Two hundred) copies of updation report
of U-PROBE Programme of DST.
b) Publication of Magnetic Bulletin 2004 has been completed.
c) Compilation of Indian Tide Tables - 2006 and Hugli Tide
Table 2006 have been completed.
v) Human Resources Development and Training
Training in the field of surveying and Mapping for the departmental
staff, other central Govt. state Govt. and neighbouring countries.
International course on National Spatial Data Infrastructure
(NSDI) for permanent Committee on Geographical Information
in Asia Pacific (PCGIAP) for member countries was conducted
by Survey of India at STI, Hyderabad.
vi) New National Map Policy
The Union Cabinet has cleared up the New National Map Policy
where-in it has been decided that there will be two series
of maps namely:
i) Defence Series Maps (DSMs) on Everest/ WGS-84 datum and
Polyconic/UTM projection on various scales and the data is
classified as Restricted .
ii) Open Series Maps (OSMs) on WGS-84 datum and UTM projection
on various scales and the data is classified as un-restricted
in Analogue and Digital form.