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Annual Report 2005-2006

Meteorology, Mapping and Survey

India Meteorological Department

Advanced Technology Support

Weather Radars

In order to modernize this RADAR network, one S-Band Doppler Weather Radar Meteor 1500S imported from Germany was installed at Visakhapatnam and likely to be commissioned by December 2005. Three Doppler Radars are already functioning round the clock at Chennai, Kolkata and Machilipatnam. Schemes for replacing 4 numbers of old and obsolete radars by new Doppler Weather Radars at Bhuj , Kochi , Mumbai and Paradeep have been approved by Council of Meteorological and Atmospheric Sciences.

Satellite Applications

IMD is receiving and processing meteorological data from Kalpana-I , INSAT-3A, and NOAA series of satellites for meteorological analysis and weather forecasting. Apart from generating hourly cloud imagery, INSAT Meteorological Data processing System (IMDPS) produces following products from the data received:

a) Cloud Motion Vectors (CMVs).

b) Sea surface temperatures ( SST's)

c) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)

d) Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE)

A National Satellite Data Centre ( NSDC ) was commissioned w.e.f. October 2005 for the archival and supply of INSAT imageries and derived products to the users and research community through a web portal.

For dissemination of Cyclone warnings to various State Governments, port officials etc. 252 analogue and 100 digital Cyclone Warning Dissemination System receivers have been installed in the cyclone prone areas of east and west coasts. It is planned to replace all the 252 analogue CWDS receivers by the Digital CWDS by 2007 and increase the network to 400 CWDS.

Weather Analysis

The computer unit of NHAC is equipped with two computer systems - Altix-350 and Origin-200. The computer system Altix-350 is being used for data processing, chart plotting & running regional & meso-scale models. The Limited Area forecast Model (LAM) and high resolution mesoscale model MM5 are run on operational mode. Various numerical products and current weather observations, weather summary, severe weather warning etc. are put in the IMD website and updated in real-time. The other system Origin 200 is being used to run Quasi Lagringian Model (QLM) for operational cyclone track prediction and for other development work.

Modernized Telecommunication Facilities

India Meteorological Department has a very extensive Telecommunication network with a central hub in Mausam Bhavan, New Delhi and five Regional Message Switching Centres at Delhi Airport, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Guwahati. NMTC (National Meteorological Telecommunication Centre) in Mausam Bhavan acts as an RTH (Regional Telecommunication Hub) of the GTS(Global Telecommunication System ) of WMO. RTH, New Delhi is one of the 15 designated RTHs and three WMCs on the MTN (Main Telecommunication Network ) of the GTS. As a designated centre, RTH. New Delhi has the responsibility of collection of observational data from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Maldives and adjoining sea and ocean areas. RTH. New Delhi maintains 12 point to point GTS links viz. Tokyo and Moscow (Frame Relay ), Karachi (64Kbps), Jeddah (64Kbps), Beijing (Frame Relay), Cairo(100baud), Dhaka (9.6Kbps), Bangkok (50 baud), Colombo (50 baud), Kathmandu (50 baud), Male (50 baud) and Yangon (50 baud). Two more circuits New Delhi- Melbourne and New Delhi-Muscat (Oman) are operating via the Internet. RTH. New Delhi is in the process of upgradation of most of our low speed circuits through internet and 64kbps leased circuits. The Beijing and Jeddah circuits have been upgraded in 2005.

IMD's website (http://www.imd.ernet.in) and http://www.imd.gov.in are operational and have become extremely popular amongst the meteorological researchers and common public. All the forecasting products like Charts, Warnings, Satellite Imageries, Rainfall information are placed and timely updated in IMD's website. Regional Meteorological Centers have internet facility and their own websites.

This year Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) popularly known as 'Weather on Phone' has been introduced which can be conveniently accessed from anywhere in the country by dialing Toll free No. 1600-180-1717 and weather for 150 cities is available on this system. This is supported by systems at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata and they are providing information in regional languages in addition to Hindi and English.

Weather Monitoring

Cyclone Monitoring

Three cyclonic storms formed over north Indian Ocean during January - November, 2005; as given below:

Cyclonic Storm over Bay of Bengal (13-17 January, 2005)

A low pressure area formed over southwest Bay of Bengal and adjoining north Indian Ocean on January 12, 2005. It concentrated into a depression on the evening of 13th near lat 5.50 N and long. 87.00 E. The system remained practically stationary and intensified into a deep depression on the morning of 14th and then into a cyclonic storm on the morning of 15th. Subsequently the system moved slowly westwards and lay centred near lat 5.50N and long 86.50E on the morning of 16th. Moving in a west-southwesterly direction, the cyclonic storm weakened into a deep depression on 17th morning near lat. 5.00 N and long 86.00 E and subsequently into a depression on the same afternoon and into a low-pressure area on the morning of 18th January 2005 over the same place. This system did not cause any significant rainfall and damage as it was far from Indian Coast.

Cyclonic Storm over Bay of Bengal (17-21 September 2005)

Another system developed as a low level cyclonic circulation over central Bay of Bengal on 14th Sept., 2005. It intensified into a depression on 17th morning near lat 20.00 N and long 90.50 E and into a cyclonic storm in the evening of 18th near lat 19.50 N and long 86.50 E. The initial movement of the system was northwestwards and then it took rather unusual southwestward movement. The system crossed as cyclonic storm in the morning of 19th close to Kalingapatnam in north coastal Andhra Pradesh. On 22nd morning it was seen as a well marked low pressure area over north Madhya Maharastra. It caused heavy to very heavy rainfall over south Orissa, north coastal Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharastra. It also caused death of 64 persons and economic loss of Rs. 1809 crores in Andhra Pradesh according to state government report.

Cyclonic Storm over Bay of Bengal (28 November -02 December 2005)

The third cyclone formed as a well marked low pressure area over south Andaman sea and adjoining southeast Bay of Bengal on the morning of 27th November, 2005. It concentrated into a depression on the morning of 28th and lay centred near Lat.10.5° N and 90.5° E about 1150Km east south east of Chennai. Moving in a westerly direction it intensified into a cyclonic storm around mid night of 28th near Lat. 10.5°N and Long 88.0°E about 900 Km east-southeast of Chennai. Continuing to move in a westerly direction it was located on the morning of 29th near Lat 10.5°N and Long. 87.0°E. It was tracked and the system was located near Lat 12.5°N and Long 84.0°E about 400 Km east-southeast of Chennai till the morning of 1st December,2005. Thereafter the system weakened into a deep depression on the same evening and further into a depression on the early morning of 2nd December near Lat. 13.0°N and Long. 82.5°E about 250 Km east of Chennai. This system caused heavy to very heavy rainfall over north costal Tamilnadu on 2nd and 3rd December causing floods.

Monsoon Monitoring

  • For the country as a whole, the seasonal rainfall from 1 June to 30 September 2005 was 99% of its long period average (LPA)
  • Among the four homogeneous regions, southwest monsoon seasonal (June to September) rainfall over northeast India was deficient by 20%. Southwest monsoon seasonal rainfall over Central India, Northwest India and South Peninsula was 110%, 90% and 112% of LPA respectively.
  • During the season, rainfall was not well distributed in time. Rainfall over the country was below normal (12% below LPA) in June. However, monsoon was active in July with excess rainfall (14% above LPA). Monsoon was subdued in August with a large deficiency of 28% of LPA. In September (rainfall +17% above LPA), monsoon became active again helping a timely revival and improving the seasonal rainfall situation over the country.
  • Southwest monsoon seasonal (June-September) rainfall was excess/normal in 32 out of 36 meteorological sub-divisions and the remaining 4 subdivisions registered deficient rainfall.
  • 72 % of the meteorological districts received excess/normal rainfall whereas 26 % received deficient and only 2% received scanty rainfall .
  • Only one sub division (Jharkhand) experienced moderate drought conditions (rainfall deficiency of 35%) at the end of the season.
  • Out of 525 meteorological districts, 88 districts (17%) experienced moderate drought and 17 districts (3%) experienced severe drought conditions at the end of the season.
  • Out of the 168 meteorological districts which suffered from drought conditions last year, as many as 113 districts received normal/excess rainfall in this monsoon season, but drought continued in 55 districts.
  • IMD's long range forecasts for the monsoon onset over Kerala and for the 2005 southwest monsoon season rainfall over the country as a whole, central India and NW India proved to be correct.

Rainfall Monitoring

  • A network comprising a large number of rain-gauge stations are utilized under the District-wise Rainfall Monitoring Scheme (DRMS). Based on the real time daily rainfall data, weekly districtwise, sub-division-wise and state-wise rainfall distribution summaries are prepared in the form of rainfall tables and maps. This information is supplied to various government agencies for official use.
  • Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the Hydrology Project Phase-II. It is proposed to install 1 (one) Radar, 20 AWS and 200 ARG under the project.
  • To conduct glaciological studies, important information on snow accumulation and snowmelt in the upper watersheds of Himalayan rivers is being collected by ground observations. For better possible observational network, 21 snow-gauges, 10 rain-gauges including One Class-I Departmental Observatory have been installed in the Western Himalayas.

Other Initiatives

Earthquake Monitoring

  • A great earthquake of magnitude 7.4 on Richter scale occurred on October 8, 2005 with its epicenter in Pakistan. The earthquake was felt widely over a major part of the northern India and also caused damage to property and loss of life in some parts of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. IMD is closely monitoring the after shock activity in the area and information relating to aftershocks of magnitude 5.0 and the information above is being transmitted on a regular basis to concerned government authorities.
  • The Great Sumatra earthquake of 26th December 2004, the Great Earthquake of Pakistan and the aftershocks thereof were monitored by India Meteorological Department (IMD) on a continual basis and information related to earthquake occurrences of magnitude >= 5.0 were transmitted to Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and other Government agencies related with disaster management activities.
  • IMD is operating five temporary seismological observatories for precise monitoring of aftershocks activity in the region. The seismological observatory at Port Blair was also upgraded by deploying digital broadband seismograph systems.
  • An inter-institutional scientific report on great Sumatra earthquake of 2004 has been brought out which summarizes the various investigations carried out by different departments in the country.
  • As part of Early Warning System for Tsunami and Storm Surges in Indian Ocean being set up by Government of India, IMD is in the process of setting up a 17-Station Real Time Seismic Monitoring Network. The specifications for the system have been finalized and tenders floated.
  • The scientists from Iceland visited India during 13-25 November, 2005 to share their experiences in the field of Earthquake Prediction and Early Warning System and identify potential areas for bilateral cooperation.
  • As part of Indo-Russian Centre for Earthquake Research (IRCER) established in IMD, a total of 17 projects are being implemented by various institutions in the country. IMD is involved in as many as 7 projects.
  • Action for setting up 20 new seismological observatories and up-gradation of 20 existing seismological observatories has been initiated.

Air Pollution Monitoring

With a view to document the long-term changes in composition of trace species of the atmosphere as a result of changing land use pattern, tremendous increase in vehicular traffic and excessive combustion of fossil fuel, India Meteorological Department, o/o ADGM(R), Air Pollution Section maintains a network of ten Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) stations of regional category. At these stations chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric turbidity is studied.

The following programmes are being carried out to improve our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to organise assessment in support of formulating environmental policy:

Precipitation Chemistry Program: Wet only precipitation samples, collected at GAW stations, are sent to Central Chemical laboratory at Pune where these are analysed for pH, conductivity, major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, NH4) and major anions (SO4, NO3, Cl).

Atmospheric Turbidity Program: Atmospheric Turbidity which indicates the columnar aerosol load of the atmosphere is measured at:

i) 7 GAW stations (Allahabad, Jodhpur, Kodaikanal, Nagpur, Port-Blair, Srinagar & Pune)

ii) 3 GAW stations (Mohanbari, Minicoy, Visakhapatnam) using Volz's Sunphotometers.

Antarctic Scientific Programme

Two member IMD team left for participating in the 25th Antarctic Expedition. The Technical Report for the 22nd Antarctic Expedition team had already sent to NCAOR, Goa for publication. Two IMD team members for 24th IAE had been working at Antarctica.

Ocean Research Cruise

Marine Section of IMD maintains Voluntary Observing Fleet, through six Port Meteorological Offices viz: Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Goa, and Mumbai. Ships of Merchant Navy, Indian Navy and Foreign Navy are recruited in IVOF. Meteorological Observations from ocean area are being collected on real time basis for operational forecasting and the scrutinized data is archived for climatological purpose.

  • Under VOSCLIM Project of WMO, IMD recruited 20 ships of Indian origin to participate in the above Programme to collect quality data on High Seas and transmit them on real time basis.
  • Necessary training was given for recording and transmitting meteorological observations for Antarctica Expedition team.
  • Excellent Awards in the form of books and Certificate of Merit were given to ships' officers, for their meritorious meteorological work, who are involved in collecting routine as well as valuable Meteorological information from High Seas.
  • Marine section also co-ordinates various ongoing WMO programmes like Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS), Marine Pollution Emergency Responses Support System (MPERSS) and Ships of Opportunity (SOT), etc.
  • A list of selected Supplementary and Auxiliary ships was sent to WMO for publication in WMO publication No. 47.
  • Ship Weather Code book 2005 were prepared and distributed to various Port Meteorological Offices for onward dispatch to IVOF ships.

Positional Astronomical Centre

The objective of the centre is to provide a unified National calendar, both for civil as well as religious purposes. During the year, the centre organized sky viewing programme through telescopes, delivered popular lectures in astronomy in different institutions and published the following 16 annual publications:

  • Indian Astronomical Ephemeris which provides authentic data on celestial objects for academicians, research scholars and scientists in the filed of astronomy and astrophysics.
  • Rashtriya Panchang in 14 languages which also provides authentic data of Panchang elements, calculated on the basis of science of astronomy.
  • Tables of Sunrise-Sunset and Moonrise-Moonset.

The centre also meets up the specific data requirements of large number of user agencies like lunar data for prediction of tides for Survey of India, Sun-Moon rise/set data for a large number of places for newspapers, judiciary, religious bodies, defence and scientific bodies, eclipse phenomena for scientific researchers and general public etc.

Apart from English edition, in house DTP composition work for preparation of manuscript of Hindi and Bengali edition of Rashtriya Panchang with a view to make improved get up of the books and error free printing are in progress. Development of computer programs for generation of data, which are being computed manually, are also in progress.

Major achievements:

  • Implementation of Nirayana calendar in Rashtriya Panchang : - As per recommendation in the final report of Peer Review Committee, a separate all India Nirayana Calendar in terms of Kali Era has been complied and newly introduced in Rashtriya Panchang.
  • Indigenous generation of data for publishing in Indian Astronomical Ephemeris : Most of the data for the publication are being generated indigenously and relevant computer programs have been developed accordingly.

Environmental Monitoring Unit

The Environmental Meteorology Unit (EMU) provided Environmental Appraisal, Exper Assessment and Consultancy in Mining activities.

Taj Monitoring

Regular monitoring of meteorological parameters is also carried out at Meteorological observatory, Taj Mahal, Agra (U.P.) and data sent to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Ministry of Environment & Forests New Delhi.

CREM Project

Climate Related Environment Monitoring (CREM), a programme of Department of Science & Technology is being implemented by IMD at Hill Campus, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal (Uttranchal) for monitoring of Green House Gases (GHGs) and Sky Radiometer has been installed at Delhi.

Meteorological Data Supply

The meteorological data are exchanged nationally as well as internationally as per WMO commitment. NDC supplies various types of data demanded by the users within and outside the country. NDC has been the nodal office for the fourth consecutive time entrusted with the preparation of World Weather Records (WWR) for the RAII region and recently has sent WWR for the period 1991-2000 to NOAA/NCDC, USA.

The meteorological data for about 125 years amounting to 96.3 million records have been digitized and archived on the hard disk of computer system VAX-4000/300 and Compaq system. Approx., 30 different types of data each containing 3-4 formats are available in NDC. During the year, 268 million records were retrieved and supplied to users.

Technologies Commercialized

(i) IMD has been providing meteorological services for Aviation to AAI at the airports. Signing of Memorandum of Understanding with AAI for reimbursement of the cost of Aviation Met. Services being rendered by IMD at the airports, is under consideration.

(ii) IMD has been providing weather forecasting services to ONGC Ltd.

(iii) Design storm studies are being conducted to study rainfall magnitude and its time distribution for use as a main input for design engineers in estimating design flood for hydraulic structures, irrigation projects, dams etc. on various rivers.

Technology Demonstration Projects

Cyclone Warning

The Limited Area Model (LAM) forecast is being produced regularly in respect of 00 UTC and 12 UTC observations for day-to-day operational use. The Quasi-lagrangian Model (QLM) model is run to produce track forecasts based on the initial conditions of each day based on 00 UTC and 12 UTC observations when the disturbance is in cyclonic storm stage. The Limited Area Forecast System (LAFS) model has been updated (from 36 to 72 hours) to get six hourly track forecasts valid upto 72 hours. The forecast graphic outputs of these models are made available in IMD Web site. IMD also runs non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM-5 in operational mode. For Storm Surge Prediction, Dynamical Storm Surge model of IIT Delhi has been made operational.

Agricultural Forecast and Advisories

The Agricultural Meteorology Division provides technical assistance to the cooperating institutions for site selection, training of personnel, calibration of instruments and their maintenance, scrutiny of data, etc. The major on going activities of the Division during 2005 are as follows.

a) Agromet Advisory Service (AAS) bulletins were prepared weekly/ biweekly at 21 Agromet Advisory Service units in the country and broadcast by AIR stations in the respective regions in regional languages and also telecasts wherever the facilities exist.

b) Comprehensive Agromet Advisory Service bulletins for all states of the country on weekly basis are being prepared and issued to various users of State and Central Government offices.

c) Consolidated biweekly All India Agromet Advisory Bulletins were prepared by AAS (HQ), Pune.

d) All India monthly weather and crop bulletins were regularly issued from AAS unit (HQ), Pune to different users.

e) Agromet observations and pilot balloon ascent are taken regularly at CAgMO Pune.

Some other activities of this division during the years are:

a) Conducted experiments and evolved techniques for better understanding of processes by which weather and climate affect crop growth and yield and the incidence of crop pests and diseases.

b) Developed pest weather calendar for various pests for operational crop protection. Prepared the revised crop weather calendars for the important crops grown in various districts of the country.

c) Studied the water use by crop and its irrigation planning for dry farming tract of India.

Other Initiatives

Modernisation of CAgMO and 3 ARU's at Anand, Bangalore and Rahuri

Prime objective was to develop Crop Growth Simulation Model and Crop Yield Forecasting system using Meteorological as well as Biological parameters recorded with the help of electronic instruments .One set of photosynthesis meter and Infrared thermometer was procured and field experiment was taken up.

Application of Remote Sensing technology to Agricultural Meteorology

Aim was to generate crop specific and area specific Agromet Advisories containing more precise information for farmers/users which is not possible by using conventional data.

Crop Yield Forecasting

This was made for different crop growth simulation models which predict the growth development and yield of crops as a function of genotype (variety), weather variations and soil conditions of crop management practices.

Weather based forewarning models

Important pest observations were recorded in experimental fields of various agricultural Institutes/ Universities for development of weather based pest models for operational crop protection.

Aviation Services

  • Meteorological Services for aviation were continued for National and International flights for safe and efficient operations. A Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centre (TCAC) was also function at HQ New Delhi to provide advisory information on tropical cyclones.
  • World Area Forecast System (WAFS) Products have been introduced for briefing and documentation of international and national (trunk routes) flights. Computerised Automatic Message Switching System (AMSS) having facilities like automatic plotting, preparation of aviation flight folder Dual Base Line Transmissometer, Laser Ceilometer and Digital distant Indicating Wind equipment, have been installed at some of the Airports.

Flood Meteorological Support

IMD has established 10 Flood Met. Offices, located at Ahmedabad, Asansol, Agra, Bhubaneswar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jalpaiguri, Lucknow, New Delhi and Patna in the flood prone areas. During the flood season each FMO daily provides hydromet bulletins containing information on Prevailing Synoptic Situation; Heavy Rainfall Warning; Quantitative Precipitation Forecast catchmentwise / subcatchmentwise; and Areal precipitation occurred during the past 24-hours catchmentwise / subcatchmentwise. to Flood Units of CWC for flood forecasting purposes.

Research Highlights

The Research Unit monitors all the research work done in India Meteorological Department. During the period, 10 new projects of different RMCs/MCs. have been given approval. Some of the research activities include:

(i) Computerized data base and derived products on Statistics of Cyclones and

(ii) Depressions over Indian Seas, 1891-2004.

(iii) Weakening of cyclonic storms over North Indian Ocean during 1994-2003.

(iv) Increasing and decreasing trends in the frequency of occurrence of cyclonic disturbances (D&C) over North Indian Ocean.

(v) Mesoscale systems arising due to shearing of intense synoptic systems like cyclones using satellite images.

(vi) Arc clouds and satellite pictures over NW India- A case study.

(vii) Evolution of 'Warm Pool' in the southeast Arabian Sea and its association with Summer Monsoon onset.

(viii) Study of ENSO-Summer Monsoon-SST-Sea Level relationships

(ix) Development of District level value-added ensemble forecast

(x) Diurnal variation of NE Monsoon rainfall over coastal Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh during October to January.

(xi) A project on Mean OLR distribution around a cyclonic disturbance over Indian Seas during post monsoon season, based on INSAT OLR data of 2000,2001 & 2002.

(xii) Probable causes of intensification and weakening of cyclonic storms emerging from NW Pacific to north Indian Ocean.

(xiii) A study on northward transportation of energy and momentum flux over Indian land mass and North Indian Ocean in northward and westward moving storms.

(xiv) Estimation of Cyclone Risk Index based on Met. Parameters and the Socio-Economic conditions in different coastal belts.

(xv) A project on Paleo Seismology in Southern India.

(xvi) A study to estimate the probable maximum storm surge over East Coast of India is in progress.

Drought Research work

The Drought Research Unit has used criteria to define a meteorological drought based on rainfall deficiency on sub-division wise basis for the country.

The Crop Yield Formulation Unit has developed empirical statistical models for preparing preharvest monthly crop production forecast for kharif rice for 15 states and total rice production. These are sent to Department of Economics & Statistics, Government of India.

Earthquake Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC)

Studies on seismic hazard and risk microzonation of NCT Delhi are in progress. First level seismic microzonation of NCT Delhi in 1:50,000 scale has been completed and further study in 1:10,000 scale is in progress. As per first level seismic microzonation, NCT Delhi has been divided into three hazard level (Low, medium and high) and hazard levels have further been divided into nine micro-zones of likely uniform seismic hazard and ground response pattern.

Following projects have been taken by EREC:

Long Term Projects

  • Creation of National Database for topographic, cultural and Demographic themes
  • Seismotectonics & Evaluation of Regional Seismic hazard; updating Seismotectonic Atlas of India with inputs on seismicity (source: NDC,IMD) ; identification of different causative faults and assigning weightage factor by ascertaining the potential of the respective faults.
  • Creation of Intensity point data (IPD) Map: Source National agencies; updating through web based interaction (" Did you feel earthquake?"); creation of facility for continuous monitoring of earthquake related news and it's archival.
  • Creation of data base for building typologies based on vulnerability Atlas of India
  • Educative earthquake awareness program.
  • Documentary on earthquake hazard, special concern with India.
  • Publication of a quarterly magazine on earthquake research and disaster mitigation with section in vernacular and should be disseminated on net also.
  • Enriching EREC library by including books, reports etc prepared by different organizations on several renowned earthquakes through interaction with international and world agencies.

Short Term Projects

  • Establishment of the EDAKH (Database, Knowledge Products and advisory Hub).
  • Methodology for Microzonation: standardization and preparation of manual.
  • Generation of database for planning Microzonation of identified cities (38).
  • Providing coordination to Delhi Microzonation-collation and generation of data and final product generation.
  • Finalization of Document on Seismic Hazard and Risk Microzonation of Jabalpur, MP.
  • The standardization of the methodology of the site characterization and liquefaction study at Delhi , in collaboration with CSMRS, WIHG and CSMACS.
  • Establishment of EREC Database and Knowledge products Hub(EDAKH), to develop fail-proof information system for ready collation primary data from various National sources, their archival, availability and retrieval& to provide Earthquake related knowledge products.
  • Setting up VSAT Telemetry Network in NE India.
  • Upgrading of Delhi Seismic network with 8 more field station in a radius of 80 km.

Visit of foreign delegation

(i) A two Member Scientific delegation from Iceland visited India Meteorological Department, New Delhi 13-27 November 2005 to share their experience in the field of Earthquakes Prediction & Early Warning System and also identify potential areas for bilateral cooperation between India and Iceland.

(ii) Mr. M. Saho, Chief Fellowship Director, Education & Training Department., WMO Geneva visited Regional Meteorological Training Centre at Pune & New Delhi during 22-28 January 2005.

International meetings and conferences

  • IMD hosted 32nd Session of WMO/ESCAP Panel of Tropical Cyclones during 21-26 February 2005 at New Delhi.
  • IMD has organized an Indian Ocean Rim - Association of Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) Working on Disaster Mitigation & Management - Tropical Cyclones & related issues at TERIRETREAT, Gurgaon during 16-17 March 2005.
  • An International Conference on MONEX & its Legacy of MONEX-79 was organized by Indian Meteorological Society during 3-7 February 2005 at New Delhi.
  • A Brainstorming meeting on Long Range Forecast (LRF) was held on 11th March 2005 under the Chairmanship of Secretary DST.
  • A Brainstorming meeting to discuss the prospects of southwest monsoon 2005 was held under the Chairmanship of Secretary DST in New Delhi on 5th June 2005.
National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)

NCMRWF has been working on continuous development of 'Numerical Weather Prediction Models' and is providing meteorological forecasts for agro-advisory purposes and also for other many special situations. The NWP system implemented on real-time at the NCMRWF consists basically a complete suite of job sequences made to run on main computing systems to produce weather forecasts as per the user requirements. Various components of the system are as follows:

- Scheme for generating Data Base of decoded meteorological observations

- Quality control and pre-processing of decoded meteorological observations

- Data Assimilation (run intermittently at 6-hrly cycles)

- Forecast Model [global spectral model with triangular truncation of 80 Waves in the horizontal and 18 levels in the vertical(T80L18)

- Scheme for generating data base of post-processed NWP products (graphical and digital output; verification and archiving)

- Statistical interpretation model for NWP output to obtain location specific forecast for different agro-climatic zones.

Major Scientific Achievements and Highlights

  • Latest version of NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM97) was installed in CRAY SV1 computer and was experimentally run for 7 days nesting with T80 global spectral model.
  • An ensemble prediction system with the T80/L18 model was implemented. This system helps in judging the factors of uncertainty in the forecast.
  • A comprehensive study of Orissa Super cyclone using the MM5 mesoscale model is carried out. Various sensitivity experiments involving different cumulus parameterization and PBL schemes are completed and the results are communicated to MAUSAM for the special issue. This paper also gives a detailed account of (i) all the other modelling studies (GCM) on the Orissa Super Cyclone carried out at NCMRWF (ii) impact of satellite observations and (iii) limitations of Gems and importance of use of mesoscale models for Tropical Cyclone Track/ intensity predictions.
  • Series of high resolution (10 km) experiments are carried out using the meso-scale model MM5 with initial and boundary conditions from (i) UKMO (ii) NCEP/AVN and also (iii)T80 and MM5- 3DVAR. Day-1 and Day-2 forecasts show improved rainfall amounts and distribution compared to the operational case. Best results comparing closely with the observations are obtained in experiment with UKMO initialization with rainfall amounts exceeding 80cm in 24-hour forecast.
  • Prepared Extended Range Monsoon Prediction jointly with SAC, Ahmedabad using 10 ensemble members (initial condition 23 to 29 Aug). Forecasts were provided to IMD.
  • The wind observations derived from Doppler Weather Radar of Chennai and Kolakata are being examined for feasibility of assimilating them into the Mesoscale model. Ten cases of severe convective systems have been chosen for this purpose. Investigations are being carried out to simulate the systems using (1) control forecast with GSFC cloud microphysics, (2) 3DVAR assimilation of various surface and upper air observations including those from satellites and (3) wind profiles derived from the Doppler Radar. Three out of the ten cases have been completed.
  • The Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model with 30 km horizontal resolution and 31 levels in the vertical had been installed and successfully test run with 180 seconds time step. Exercises are underway for (i) development of interface for using the T80 output for WRF and (ii) Testing and running of the WRF with 3D variational assimilation (3DVAR).
  • The 1-D uncoupled land surface model, Noah-LSM, has been acquired from NCEP and test run successfully on CRAY SV1. Efforts are on to run the model on global grid in par with operational T80 model.
  • The METEOSAT-5 rainfall data is being examined for its suitability to use as daily rain-analysis over India region.
  • 22km-Eta was re-run with inputs from UKMO model for reassessment of the 27-28 October, 2005 cyclonic system.

Workshops / Brainstorming sessions

NCMRWF organized a two day International Brain storming meeting on "Modeling and Prediction over Indian Monsoon Region: vision 2015" during 1-2 Feb 2005.

NCMRWF organized a two-day preparatory meeting for International Roundtable on "Understanding and Prediction of Summer and Winter Monsoon" to commemorate 50th Year of Bandung Afro-Asian meeting. A delegation from Indonesia led by Ir. Sri Woro B. Harijono, Deputy for Data and Information System, BMG, Indonesia was major participant. Scientists from from various organizations in India have also participated.

A 3-day BIMSTEC meeting on Weather and Climate was organized at NCMRWF. In this meeting about 60 scientists and scientific managers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand participated. Myanmar could not participate. Scientists from a number of research institutes in India also participated and made presentations. At the end of the meeting, recommendations were framed and forwarded to the International Division of DST for further necessary action.

One-day discussion meeting was organized on 6th September 2005 at NCMRWF on, "Joint Indo-US project on land falling tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal".

New Initiatives

i. Latest version of NCEP Regional Spectral Model (RSM97) was installed in CRAY SV1 computer and was experimentally run for 7 days nested with T80 global spectral model. The model was initially set up at a resolution of 50 Km with 18 vertical levels. The model domain covers most of the Himalayas. The medium range forecasts by RSM97 were found to be encouraging. Efforts are on to increase the resolution and further improve the forecast of mesoscale weather features.

ii. Twenty-four (24) new Agromet Advisory Units have been opened enhancing the all India network of AAS units to 107.

iii. In order to facilitate better lead time, the users of our products are provided with early forecast runs of T80/L18 global model. These forecast products for current date are available to the users online around 2PM. A separate web link to these products is provided at NCMRWF web site www.ncmrwf.gov.in.

iv. An MOU for joint INDO-US collaborative project had been signed between Secretary, DST and President, UCAR. NCMRWF from India and NCAR from USA shall steer a joint demonstration experiment on "Track and intensity of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal". In this project, WRF model of NCAR shall be the main component. It shall be implemented on NCMRWF computer system. NCMRWF shall also steer the climate modeling collaborative program.

v. A 3-day BIMSTEC meeting on Weather and Climate was organized at NCMRWF. In this meeting about 60 scientists and scientific managers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand participated

vi. A collaborative effort is started with Geological Survey of India with its northern region office located at Lucknow to provide appropriate weather inputs (mainly rainfall) for landslide forewarning over identified vulnerable zones (Himalayas; NE regions and Western Ghats).

vii. The 1-D uncoupled land surface model, Noah-LSM, has been acquired from NCEP and test run successfully on CRAY SV1. Efforts are on to run the model on global grid in par with operational T80 model.

viii. NCMRWF had been included as a partner in the development of a Indicative Drought Management Plan by the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), Min. of Home Affairs, New Delhi.

Scientific Services

Issue of weather forecast to Agromet Advisory Service (AAS) Units

Daily forecasts with a temporal range of 4 days were issued for cloud cover, maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speed and direction and rainfall to 107 Agromet Advisory Units twice a week. In addition, weekly cumulative rainfall forecast were also supplied to crop weather watch groups.

Feedback to the Ministry of Agriculture

All India weekly weather forecasts were supplied to crop weather watch group, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture on every Monday. Review of weather vis-à-vis different crop situation all over country during the previous week and fore-view of weather sensitive crop scenario for the forthcoming week were facilitated by the participation in the group discussions every Monday at the Ministry of Agriculture.

Extensive Agro-advisory

An extensive agro-advisory covering all the agro-meteorological zones of the country was prepared for the use of all the functional Agro-meteorological Forecasting Units (AMFU) and all other user agencies. The agro-advisory explicitly included regional weather forecast in relation to all possible cropping patterns over different regions of the country. The bulletins were circulated to all the users during monsoon season.

Daily Weather Forecast

Daily weather forecast products from operational T80 global data assimilation and forecast system were provided to IMD, Indian Air Force, Directorate of Oceanography and Meteorology, Indian Navy, Indian Army and Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment of DRDO. Besides, daily forecast for strategic locations were also issued to Indian Army.

Feed for KISAN channel

The KISAN channel launched by Ministry of Agriculture and coordinated by IGNOU were provided with weeklong scenario on current weather situation, agro-climatic zone specific synoptic weather bulletin and all India consolidated agro-advisory. These weeklong forecasts were issued 4 times a week starting from Monday through Thursday.

Web Based Services

- The district level forecast system developed for about 440 stations over India has been linked to NCMRWF web page.

- Deterministic weather forecast for all district headquarters of India and implemented on operational basis. This service is not available for all stations currently.

- Information on detailed weather systems likely to prevails during the next 5 days including temperature and rainfall forecast for metropolitan cities had been started

Weather Forecast for Special Events

NCMRWF had been poured with requests for issue of weather forecast for special events of scientific and national importance. The highlights of weather forecast issued for such events include:

  • Mountain Expeditions

- Provided detailed forecast to the Indian Army for the Shisha Pangma mountaineering expedition. The mountaineering group has appreciated the forecast for its accuracy as they reportedly experienced the forecast conditions while scaling the summit.

- Special Frontier Force that comprised of 4 women officials successfully climbed up the peak of Gangotri - I on 29th May 2005 taking the NCMRWF forecast during the entire period of their expedition. The H.E. President of India had invited officers of NCMRWF on 27th June at Rashtrapati Bhavan along with team members of Indian Army Women Expedition to Mount Everest who availed NCMRWF weather advisory all along the route to summit.

Trainings Imparted

- "NWP course for Indian Navy personnel" was organized from 26.9.2005 to 07.10.2005. The course exposes the trainees to the state of the art theoretical and practical aspects of numerical weather prediction.

- A training programme on 'Dynamic Crop simulation model based DSS and its use in AAS' was held during 7-18 November, 2005.

National and International Collaborations

i. Extended Range Prediction: Collaborated with Space Application Centre (SAC) alongside other agencies in the program of Meteorology & Oceanography Program organized by SAC and contributed in extended range prediction of monsoon 2004.

ii. Nuclear Emergency Warning: The hourly interval high resolution (10 km) 3-day forecasts from MM5 for four nuclear sites of Department of Atomic Energy (Narora, Trombay, Kaiga and Kalpakkam) were made operational for exclusive use of BARC as a part of Nuclear Emergency warning system.

iii. The CEOP: The Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was an international collaborative project under the umbrella of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of WMO. NCMRWF had been participating in CEOP by providing the model output from its operational version of the Global Analysis-Forecast System (T80/L18)for the EOP4 period. The CEOP workshop held at Tokyo, Japan during 28-02-04 to 04-03-2005 had been attended.

iv. Collaboration with NCEP: MOU has been signed for enhanced collaboration with NCEP, USA in order to augment the existing cooperation. The enhanced program includes participation in development of new forecast system, visitor programme, transfer of technology, and joint research on Indian monsoon and high impact weather.

v. Collaboration with NCAR: NCMRWF from India and NCAR from USA shall steer a joint demonstration experiment on track and intensity of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal. In this project, WRF model of NCAR shall be the main component. It shall be implemented on NCMRWF computer system. NCMRWF shall also steer the climate modeling collaborative program.

vi. Collaboration with GSI: A collaborative effort is started with Geological Survey of India to provide appropriate weather inputs (mainly rainfall) for landslide forewarning over identified vulnerable zones (Himalayas; NE regions and Western Ghats).
National Atlas And Thematic Mapping Organization (NATMO)

The Organization headed by a Director and assisted by two Joint Directors and seven Deputy Directors, has a total strength of 462 which includes a large number of qualified professional geographers and cartographers, perhaps the largest number under one roof in the world. It is a premier organization in the field of preparation of thematic maps for the country. Its major functions are:

  • Compilation of the National Atlas of India in English and Hindi;
  • Preparation of National Atlas Maps in regional languages;
  • Preparation of thematic maps based on research studies on environment and associated aspects and their impact on social and economic development;
  • Installation of Automated Mapping System for increasing efficiency in mapping; and
  • Geographical/Cartographical research and training.

Targets and Achievements for the Year 2005-2006

S.No.
Name of the Programme
Target 2005-2006 by number of maps
Achievements
1.
Revision of National Atlas
15
07
2.
District Planning Map Series
10
05
3.
State Atlas of Uttar Pradesh
20
04
4.
State Atlas of Bihar
20
06
5.
State Atlas of Madhya Pradesh
10
04
6.
Cultural & Heritage Atlas
15
04
7.
State Atlas of Jharkhand
20
07
8.
School Atlas for Visually Impaired
12
10
9.
State Atlas of Chhattisgarh
20
06
10.
State Atlas of Uttaranchal (Hindi)
36
26
11.
District Infrastructure and Communication Mapping
06
02
12.
Electronic Atlas of India
10
05

Other Highlights

Exhibition

The Organization opened stalls with sales provision on NATMO Maps/ Atlases in 21 exhibitions and Book Fairs all over India.

Scientific Papers

Altogether 22 scientific papers have been presented by NATMO Officers and Members of Staff at different seminars held in different parts of the country.

NATMO DMS Building Complex

It is a fully automatic Digital Mapping Section of NATMO, equipped with modern state-of-art technologies related to GIS, GPS & RS System. It is meant for specific value added digital output, training and research etc.

Training

Seven Officers and Members of Staff of NATMO have been trained in the Courses/Workshops held at Jadavpur University, Kolkata; NRSA, Hyderabad; and other places during the period.

Revenue Generated during 2004-2005

a) During the period from April 2004 to March 2005, the Organization has generated a revenue of Rs. 10,82,600/- (Rupees ten lakh eighty two thousand and six hundred) only through selling of various maps, atlases and monographs etc.

b) NATMO has earned Rs. 1,56,000/- (Rupees one lakh fifty-six thousand) only as course fee for different Training Courses conducted during this period.
Survey of India

Spatial data plays very significant role in the planning for economic upliftment of the common man, development of the security of the nation. Survey of India, the National Mapping agency of Government of India, has the unique responsibility of providing timely, cost effective and accurate spatial data to the Geo-spatial community. In this prominent role, the Department ensures that the country's domain is explored and mapped suitably to meet the emerging needs of the information market. Survey of India has been reorganised into state level Geo-spatial Data Centres (GDCs) to meet the demands of the users in various sections of the society.

Digital technology occurred with revolutionary change in use of computer for handling of information through Geographical Information system, has changed the outlook in the method of collection of spatial data, it's analysis and use. In view of the new technologies in Geo-spatial industries, the newly created GDCs have been established to acquire DATA from satellite imagery and provide GIS solutions to various users. Survey of India, with upto date technology, has entered the market with analogue and digital products, to meet the needs of variety of users. Updating the existing Digital topographic data base on 1:50,000 scale using remotely sensed inputs combined with ground truth checking, to becompleted with in the time target, is the first and foremost task, in hand. Simultaneously, to meet the demands of the society for digital data to create vehicle navigation system for metros is another priority job, the Department has taken up, besides the normal Geodetic, Geophysical and development surveys. Geomagnetic, gravity, dam deformation and crustal movement studies, collection, analysis and dissemination of tidal data, are the other important allied research areas where the Department has been providing useful information to all sections of the society.

Technology Development Projects

i) The following activities to bring out two series of topographical maps based on WGS-84 datum are going on in full swing:

  • Determination of transformation parameters between Everest Spheroid Datum and WGS-84 Datum using GPS technology.
  • Digital Data base has been created for the entire country on scale 1:50,000, 1:250,000 and on 1:25,000 scale for part of India.

ii) ALTM Technology for the preparation of Digital Elevation models has been introduced in Survey of India.

iii) The following other projects based on latest available technologies have been taken up :

  • Generation of GPS compatible maps for navigation purpose for seven metros - Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.
  • GIS based digital mapping of 70 Towns of Uttaranchal state on 1:4,000 scale.
  • Mapping and generation of GIS data base on 1:10,000, 1:2000 scale and utility maps on 1:1000 scale in respect of 137 cities / towns under the scheme of "National Urban Information System" (NUIS) a National Mission programme of Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India has been awarded to Survey of India.
  • A project on generation of Village Information System (VIS) i.e. administrative boundaries up to village level and integration of socio-demographic data, infrastructure data and topographical data for various state of the country. The data has already been delivered to some agencies namely planning commission, NIC and Election Commission and IB for planning and monitoring of their activities.
  • Digital Mapping of Bamboo resources showing different species of Bamboos in North Eastern regions.
  • Digital Mapping of "National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuary" alongwith GIS on scale 1:25,000 under NNRMS project.
  • Digital mapping of 57 Urban Local Bodies (ULB) of Karnataka state on scale 1:4,000 for providing GIS and Municipal Information System (MIS) of Nirmal Nagar Project.
  • Provision of Digital Data to Ministry of Communication & other projects.
  • Replacement of Analogue Photogrammetry with Digital Photogrammetry.
  • Control Survey in the Tsunami affected areas by GPS is completed.

Basic Research Projects

Different methods and techniques are being developed for mapping using latest available instruments and technologies such as Total Stations, GPS integrated with tablet PC & mapping S/W etc.

Use of various Image processing softwares is being explored in Survey of India for digitisation of maps.

Attempts are in progress for the creation of GIS and LIS using Remote sensing, GPS and existing techniques of Surveying

Technologies Transferred/Commercialization

i) Updation of Topographical maps using satellite imageries of various resolutions. assessing their accuracies.

ii) Survey of India had signed an MOU with M/s EICHER Good Earth Limited for commercialization of SOI's products. As per the agreement M/s EICHER Good Earth Limited had taken a project of preparing all India Road Atlas on SOI digital data. All India Road Atlas is ready for launching. M/s EICHER Good Earth Limited had also developed GIS based on SOI data for city of Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad.

(iii) Planning Commission has conceptualized a project of Computer aided digital mapping of metro cities through National Informatics Centre (NIC), Department of Information Technology, Government of India, New Delhi. NIC has placed order for supply of computer aided digital mapping data for 3 cities, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Mumbai on scale 1:1000.

(iv) The project "Virtual India" is a collective effort between the Survey of India (SOI) and Microsoft Research Lab Private India (MSR. India) which enable the SOI to make Survey data available over the Internet in useful and innovative ways.

Technology Demonstration Projects Undertaken in the Area of Socio-Economic Development

(i) Topographical activities

(a) Control Work:

  • Topo Triangulation (by GPS) .. 630 sq km
  • Aerial Triangulation ... 51,340 sq km
  • Traverse ... 1,290 lin km
  • Levelling ... 4,410 lin km

(b) Surveys:

  • Photogrammetric surveys on various scales ... 3,568 sq km
  • Ground surveys on various scales ... 254,762 sq km
  • Boundary demarcation … 250 lin km
  • Verification surveys for IAF .... 19,3600 sq km

(c) Fair Mapping:

  • Topographical ... 2,48,500 sq km
  • Digital Mapping ... 536 maps

(d) Printing:

  • Printing of various types of maps ... 1188 Maps

(ii) Digitisation and creation of Digital Cartographic databases:

  • Departmental on various scales ... 1800 Maps
  • Extra Departmental on various scales ... 500 Maps

(iii) Geodetic and Geophysical surveys:

a) Geodetic surveys for monitoring of constructional progress of various developmental projects are in progress.

b) During the year, Survey of India is committed to carry out the following tasks as departmental commitment:

  • GPS observations - 200 stations
  • Precision Levelling - 2150 lin km
  • EDM Traverse - 150 lin km
  • Gravity observations - 600 stations
  • Gravity on Bench Marks - 50 stations
  • Geomagnetic repeat observations - 60 stations
  • Astro Azimuth - 500 stations
  • Installation of Tide Gauges - 6 ports

(iv) Research Highlights

i) Pilot study project for the "Real Time Date Transmission" has been carried out at Vishakhapatnam Port and Cochin Port, Central Hub was replicated at ECIL, Hyderabad. Exercise was successful.

ii) Survey of India continued participating in Indian Antarctic Programme.

iii) Papers on various aspects of Surveying and the related technologies have been presented by Maj. Gen M. Gopal Rao, Surveyor General of India and also by other officers of Survey of India at different national and international platforms.

Other Initiatives

i) Boundaries Demarcation

Demarcation, Relocation and Construction of boundary pillars and preparation of Strip-Maps of various international and inter-state boundaries remained in progress during the year.

ii) Topographical Surveys

a) Surveys on various large scales are being taken up on selective basis according to the priorities indicated by the Central/ State Governments and other user communities.

b) Most of the maps on the primary scale of 1:50K covering the entire country have been digitised. Revision surveys for updating these maps are in progress.

c) Maps on 1:250 K scales covering the entire country have been digitised and updation of these maps is in progress.

d) Compilation of various Geographical maps, State maps, Guide maps etc. are being continuously carried out.

iii) Digital Cartography

Digitization of 5,000 out of 5,108 on 1:50,000 scale and 1091 maps out of 19,540 maps on 1:25,000 scale has been completed.

iv) Printing and Publication

Other than the regular publication of the topographical maps on various scales and Geographical maps, Guide maps, District Planning maps etc. the following publications were also brought out:

a) Printing of 200 (Two hundred) copies of updation report of U-PROBE Programme of DST.

b) Publication of Magnetic Bulletin 2004 has been completed.

c) Compilation of Indian Tide Tables - 2006 and Hugli Tide Table 2006 have been completed.

v) Human Resources Development and Training

Training in the field of surveying and Mapping for the departmental staff, other central Govt. state Govt. and neighbouring countries.

International course on National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) for permanent Committee on Geographical Information in Asia Pacific (PCGIAP) for member countries was conducted by Survey of India at STI, Hyderabad.

vi) New National Map Policy

The Union Cabinet has cleared up the New National Map Policy where-in it has been decided that there will be two series of maps namely:

i) Defence Series Maps (DSMs) on Everest/ WGS-84 datum and Polyconic/UTM projection on various scales and the data is classified as Restricted .

ii) Open Series Maps (OSMs) on WGS-84 datum and UTM projection on various scales and the data is classified as un-restricted in Analogue and Digital form.
 

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