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Annual Report 2003 - 2004

Scientific Services

India Meteorological Department

Advanced Technology Support

  • Doppler Weather Radar

a) One indigenous Doppler Weather Radar developed under an MOU signed between IMD and Indian space Research organization (ISRO), has been made operational at SHAR Centre, Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh) w.e.f. 28.12.2002.

b) Orders were placed on M/S Gemotronik, Germany for supply of 2 nos. state-of-arttechnology Doppler Weather Radar Meteor-15005 for installation at Visakhapatnam and Machilipatnam.

  • Wind Measurement

` Under the World Bank aided scheme, ten sets of High Wind Speed Recorders (HWSR) of ultrasonic type were installed at Meteorological Offices located along East and West Coast.

  • Weather Observation System

Surface

a) State-of-art automatic weather stations were procured under the project ‘Parwat’ and commissioned at 22 stations over Himalayan region.
b) Four sets of new state-of-the-art laser Ceilometers for reporting data on height of base of low cloud for aviation were installed at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Thiruvananthapuram airports.
c) Two Current Weather Instrument Systems (CWIS) were installed at Agartala & Mohanbari Airports.

Upper Air

a) Ten state-of-the-art Radio-theodolites IMS-1500 were procured and installed at New Delhi, Lucknow, Kolkata, Guwahati, Jodhpur, Mumbai, Nagpur, Jammu, Sasoma and Manali.

b) Automatic Computation System for RS/RW data were commissioned at Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Mangalore, Goa and Hyderabad.

c) Two numbers of Electrolysers for Hydrogen Gas Generation have been installed at Manali and Jammu.

Aviation

Meteorological services for aviation were continued for national and international aviation flights for safe and efficient operations. These services were provided through a network of aeronautical meteorological offices located at major airports in the country and a computerized data processing center at New Delhi.

The services were further modernized with the installation of state-of-art Automatic Message Switching Systems at International Airports at Mumbai, Kolkata, New Delhi and Chennai. The computerized documentation for Pilots has been introduced at these airports.

Earthquake Monitoring

a) The following micro-earthquake surveys for monitoring of aftershocks, and site response studies were carried out.

i) After-shock monitoring in Bhuj area of Gujarat region.
ii) Seismic monitoring at Rajkot, Surendranagar and Jamnagar.
iii) Site response studies in Rajkot, Delhi and Guwahati region.
b) V-SAT Communication facility has been provided to 10 Observatories equipped with GSN and broad-band seismograph.
c) A few sets of multipurpose seismographs were procured from Russia for installation in the national network.
d) Under Indo-Russian Collaboration in seismology, an MOU was signed under which seventeen projects were identified for joint collaboration.

Satellite Applications

Satellite applications are being carried out in various fields as follows:

- INSAT Meteorological Data Processing System (IMDPS);
- High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) Data Receiving System;
- Primary Data Utilization Station (PDUS);
- Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD);
- Data Collection Platforms (DCP).

Under World Bank Project, 100 nos. Digital Cyclone Warning Dissemination Systems (CWDS) were installed in coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh. These sets have the facility of transmission of acknowledgement by the receiving station to the central location.

Modernized Telecommunication Facilities

a) India Meteorological Department maintains a very extensive telecommunication network with Central Hub in its National Meteorological Telecommunication Centre (NMTC) at New Delhi connected with five state-of-the-art regional message switching systems at Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Guwahati. For collection of meteorological data from the entire country and the neighbouring NMTC, all modes of communication were utilized.

b) The Regional Telecommunication Hub (RTH), New Delhi maintains 13 point-to-point Global Telecommunication System (GTS) links. In addition, two more circuits, New Delhi-Melbourne and New Delhi-Muscat (Oman) are operating via the INTERNET.

c) The website of IMD, New Delhi (http://www.imd.gov.in) contains dynamically updated information on all India weather and forecast, special monsoon report, METSAT satellite cloud picture updated every three hours, Limited Area Model (LAM) generated products and prognostic charts, special weather warnings, tropical cyclones information and warnings, including tracks predicted by the newly developed dynamical model, weekly and monthly rainfall distribution maps, earthquake reports etc.

d) An Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS), popularly known as ‘weather on telephone’, was started by the NMTC, which provides weather information for 37 Indian cities. One can access current weather and forecast for major Indian cities by dialing a convenient 4-digit telephone number 1717. The information is broadcast in regional languages in addition to Hindi and English.

e) IMD started broadcasting of weather data and processed products using World Space Asia Star Satellite. The footprint of this satellite covers the entire SE Asia and data can be received through an inexpensive receiver.

Basic Research Projects

Long Range Forecast

IMD introduced reversal new models for long range forecast of south-west rainfall replacing the 16 parameter parametric and power regression models.

(i) 8 Parameter Power Regression and Probabilistic Model for long range forecast using data up to March end;

(ii) 10 Parameter Model for forecast update including forecast for July rainfall. All the predictions made by IMD with its newly developed long range forecast models which were used for the first time in an operational mode, have proved to be correct.

Project PARWAT

Under the Mountain Meteorology Project, now renamed as Project PARWAT, the analysed weather charts/bulletins are being sent to the Mountain Meteorological Centre, Srinagar. A numerical model for avalanche forecast is under development.

Ongoing Research Work

  • Seismic Monitoring

The Seismology Division continued to maintain 47 National, 9 River Valley Projects and 4 Special purpose seismological observatories to monitor seismicity around the Dams.

  • Agriculture–related studies

(a) Soil moisture data were recorded at the departmental evapotranspiration stations and soil moisture recording stations for benefit of research workers in various fields of agriculture, irrigation management;

(b) Crop weather calendars for the various crops of the States were prepared for Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and West Bengal;

(c) Development of Crop Growth Simulation Model and Crop Yield Forecasting System using Meteorological as well as biological parameters recorded with electronic instruments has been initiated.

  • Air Pollution Monitoring

(a) Environmental appraisal was undertaken of a number of industrial and power projects and mining activities of the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

(b) Regular monitoring of meteorological parameters was continued at Taj Mahal, Agra.

  • CREM Project

Climate Related Environment Monitoring (CREM), a programme of Department of Science & Technology is being implemented by IMD at Pant University, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal (Uttaranchal) for monitoring of green house gases (GHGs) and at Delhi for aerosols as a pilot project for one year.

  • Antarctica Scientific Programme

IMD team members of the 21st Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica, returned to India in the 4th week of March 2003 after successful completion of meteorological work at Maitri in Antarctica. IMD team for 23rd Indian Antarctica Expedition is presently undergoing training at different divisions at Pune and Delhi.

  • Ocean Research Cruise

(a) IMD participated in two research cruises of ORV Sagar Kanya during March-April and May-June 2003. Under Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX-II) programme, the IMD team on-board Sagar Kanya took meteorological observations.

(b) IMD continued to maintain Voluntary Observing Fleet (VOF) through six Port Meteorological Offices, viz., Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Goa and Mumbai comprising ships of Merchant Navy, Indian Navy and foreign agencies.

IMD Grant-in-Aid Programmes

(a) IMD has allocated Rs.25 lakhs per year towards research grants to Research Institutes/Universities/Societies for encouraging research work in the field of meteorology and atmospheric sciences. Research projects at Jadavpur University and Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS) , IIT Delhi, are being funded under the programme.

(b) A contribution of Rs.30,000/- was made to National Institute of Ocean Technology for the National Symposium on ‘Coastal and Ocean Technology’, held during 10-12 December 2003 at Chennai.

(c) The Indian Meteorological Society (IMS), New Delhi is also being funded for publication of its research journal ‘Vayu Mandal’.

Technologies Transferred / Commercialised

  • Meteorological Data Supply

(a) Meteorological observations recorded by the observatories all over India are crutinized, processed and archived by National Data Centre (NDC), Pune and supplied to various agencies for various purposes;

(b) NDC, Pune supplies various types of meteorological data demanded by users in India and abroad.

  • Observational support

(a) Manufacture of instruments for surface meteorological observations is undertaken at Pune. Limited supply of these instruments is made to Air Force, Navy and other agencies. Manufacture of upper air observation instrument known as ‘radio-sonde’ is undertaken at New Delhi. These instruments, apart from internal use, are supplied to Navy, Department of Space and Meteorological Service of Sri Lanka.

(b) Development and manufacture of analog seismograph systems and accessories is also undertaken. These are also supplied to other Institutions.

Technology Demonstration Projects undertaken in the area of socio-economic development

  • Cyclone Warning

100 Cyclone Warning Dissemination System (CWDS) based on latest digital technology with provision of sending acknowledgement of receipt of warning have been installed and commissioned in coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh. This is in addition to 250 analog based CWDS which are already operational for real time dissemination of cyclone warnings through satellite directly to the areas likely to be affected.

  • Agricultural Forecast and Advisories

(a) IMD continued its support to National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), New Delhi for development of its agro-meteorological advisory services in the country.

(b) Based on empirical statistical models, pre-harvest monthly crop production forecast for kharif rice for 15 states and total rice production for the country as a whole from August- December were prepared and supplied to user agencies.

(c) Special forecast of rainfall and upper wind and also locust sighting observations were taken in Rajasthan and adjoining areas and supplied to users.

(d) Agrimet Division continued to prepare and issue Agromet Advisory Services (AAS) bulletins weekly/biweekly in consultation with State agricultural experts and various specialists for the benefit of farmers at 20 Agromet Centres in the country.

  • Hydrology Project

The phase one of World Bank Hydrology Project for enhancing the physical infrastructure of hydrometeorological activities in which IMD is participating as one of the central agency has been completed.

  • Flood Meteorological Support

Ten Flood Meteorological Offices located in flood-prone areas, continued to provide support to the Central Flood Forecasting Divisions of Central Water Commission (CWC).

  • Infrastructure Development

(a) Three existing Meteorological Offices were upgraded to full-fledged Meteorological Centres at Gangtok, Agartala and Itanagar.
(b) The part-time observatories at Mandla in Madhya Pradesh and Kanyakumari in Tamilnadu have been upgraded to departmental observatories.

  • Training Programme

(a) The Central Training Institute of IMD at Pune is designated as WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centre in different disciplines.

(b) Three special training courses were organized for Defence Services and Salt Commissioners officials.

Research Highlights

  • Long Range Forecast for SW Monsoon Rainfall 2003

Long Range Forecast of Monsoon 2003 was issued by India Meteorological Department (IMD) based upon the newly adopted 8 parameter power regression model and using data upto March end, on 16th April 2003.

  • Instrumentation

MK-IV radiosonde which uses electronic switching of element was designed and operationalised for use with new auto computation system.

  • Research Publication

IMD publishes a quarterly journal “MAUSAM”. In order to encourage quality research, a Biennial ‘Mausam’ award was instituted for the best scientific research paper published in Hindi and English. A special issue on “Remote Sensing Applications in Meteorology” was published as a January 2003 issue of ‘Mausam’.

  • Climate Change

A research project, “Climate Change in the Asian Summer Monsoon Region”, under the programme, “Regional Aspect of Global Climate Change”, has been undertaken in the Monsoon Activity Centre, which functions at New Delhi under WMO’s Monsoon Climatology Programme.

National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation

The NATMO is a premier organisation in the field of preparation of thematic maps established with the following objectives:

  • Compilation of the National Atlas of India in English and Hindi;
  • Preparation of National Atlas Maps in regional languages;
  • Preparation of thematic maps based on research studies on environmental and associated aspects and their impact on social and economic development;
  • Installation of Automated Mapping System for increasing efficiency in Mapping; and
  • Geographical/Cartographical research and training.

Targets and Achievement during 2003-2004

S.No. Name of the Programme No. of Maps produced
1. Revision of National Atlas 07
2. Abridged Edition of National Atlas 12
3. Landuse Mapping 01
4. Landform Mapping 01
5. District Planning Map Series 25
6. Natural Resources Data Management System (NRDMS) Mapping 01
7. Health & Diseases Atlas 04
8. Economic, Science & Technology Atlas 29
9. Revision of Tourist Atlas 04
10. Atlas on Population Change 05
11. State Map of Uttaranchal 36
12. State Atlas of Chhattisgarh 08
13. State Atlas of Jharkhand 08

Activities undertaken during 2003-04

Exhibition

The Organisation opened 13 stalls with sales provision on NATMO Maps/ Atlases in different exhibitions and Book Fairs at several places in the country.

Scientific Papers

17 scientific papers were presented by NATMO Officers and members of the staff at different seminars held in different parts of the country.

NATMO DMS Building Complex

NATMO entered into an agreement with M/S WIPRO INFOTECH LTD of Bangalore for the supply and installation of the Digital Mapping and Geographical Information System in the NATMO Campus at Salt Lake, Kolkata. Accordingly, a major portion of the equipment has already been received and the installation and functional training programmes have started.

DMS at NATMO Headquarters

To cope up with the growing demand and adoption of modern automated cartography, another Digital Mapping System has been installed in NATMO (H/Q) during March 2003 which is also functioning effectively.

Revenue Generated during 2002-03

a) During the period from April 2002 to March 2003, the Organisation has generated a revenue of Rs.6,33,389/- (rupees six lakh thirty-three thousand three hundred and eighty nine) only through selling of various maps, atlases and monographs. From April 2003 to September 2003, an amount of Rs. 2,85,492/- (two lakh eighty five thousand four hundred & ninety two) only has been earned as revenue from sales.

b) An amount of Rs.2,29,000/- (two lakh twenty nine thousand) only has been earned as course fee for different training courses held during this period.

c) Revenue (Civil Deposits) generated through Extra-Departmental Projects:-

i) Project between NATMO & CPCB for mapping of ESZIS Maps of different states of India – Rs.29.54 lakhs.
ii) Scanning and Digitization and Keying-in-Information of 856 Smart Maps of Kolkata City – A joint project of CMC & NATMO – Rs.22.59 lakh.
iii) Rs.75,000/- earned as revenue by way of printing Stac-Scan Journal.
iv) Rs.81,780/- earned as revenue by the Digital Mapping Division by way of extradepartmental scanning, plotting jobs etc.

National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)

Overview/ Summary of Activities

  • Performance Evaluation of the Forecast Model

One of the major activities of the Centre was the performance evaluation of the Global Data Assimilation-Forecast System (GDAFS) during successive summer monsoon seasons. This task which was pursued thoroughly as the successful prediction of various facets of the summer monsoon, is the most challenging task for any forecasting system which is highly sensitive to various factors viz. model resolution; availability of good quality observational data; intra-seasonal variability; variability of various regional/global scale surface boundary fields etc.

  • Issue of weather forecast to Agromet Advisory Service (AAS) Units

The temporal range of forecast issued to AAS units was extended to 4 days. Improved temporal ranges of forecasts of daily weather like cloud cover, maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speed and direction and rainfall were issued to 82 Agromet Advisory Units twice a week. In addition, weekly cumulative rainfall forecasts were also supplied to crop weather watch groups.

  • Augmentation of Agromet Advisory Service (AAS) Network

The AAS network had been augmented by opening one more site at Allahabad. The total number of AAS units now stands at 82. In addition, infrastructure development had been initiated at fifty-nine AAS units by providing a personal computer and internet connection to facilitate communication, data processing and crop modeling work. Also, nodal officers of NCMRWF AAS units located at state capitals represented in respective crop weather watch groups.

  • Weekly Weather Forecasts

All India weekly weather forecasts were supplied to crop weather watch group, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture on every Monday.

  • Daily Weather Forecasts

Daily weather forecast products from operational T80 global data assimilation and forecast system were provided to IMD, Indian Air Force, Directorate of Oceanography and Meteorology, Indian Navy, Indian Army and Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment of DRDO. Besides, daily forecasts for strategic locations were also issued to Indian Army.

  • Weather Forecast for Special Events

NCMRWF received requests for issue of weather forecast for special events of scientific and national importance. The highlights of weather forecasts issued for events such as Mountain Expeditions; national events and events like Satellite Launching; Hot-Air Balloon Expedition; Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX); and Global Cruise etc.

  • Data Sharing

- Forecast wind and flux data from operational global model T80 for the month of March, 2003 were supplied to National Remote Sensing Agency for verification of their “Mixed Layer Depth Model”.
- The Central Water Commission (CWC) was provided with one month daily rainfall forecast data over the grid falling in Yamuna Catchment for validation of the suitability of NCMRWF forecast products for application in flood forecast.
- Requests for weather forecasts were received from international agencies operating in Sri Lanka, Qatar, Kenya and African regions. Forecasts from operational meso-scale model ETA were provided for desired domain on daily basis through NCMRWF web site and also through file transfer protocal (ftp).
- ARMEX data on CDROMs in 3 batches was distributed to the Indian scientific communities. The CDROMs contained (a) satellite cloud pictures for the entire ARMEX period from 15 June – 15 August 2002, (b) NCMRWF analysis over the Indian domain made from its global T80 model for the ARMEX period, and (c) AWS, RS/RW, Pilot balloon, and Sagar Kanya data of the ARMEX period.
- Display of real-time forecasts at 10 km resolution over the northwest Himalayan region obtained from the MM5 model had been started on the NCMRWF web site on request from SASE – one of the collaborative agencies in “Mountain Meteorology” program.

Workshops/Seminars Organized

  • A BIMST-EC workshop on “Monitoring, Prediction and Warning of Tropical Cyclones and Monsoon” was organized during 25-28 March 2003 at New Delhi.
  • A one-day Interaction Meeting of scientists from Indian Oragnizations with visiting High Level Delegation from NCAR, USA on Enhancing Cooperation in the Field of Atmospheric
    Sciences was held on November 2003 at New Delhi.

Trainings organized

  • A two-week “Familiarization Course on Numerical Weather Prediction”, was organized exclusively for Indian Air Force personnel during September-October, 2003.
  • An Indian Air Force (IAF) officer was trained on the application of MM5 model for aviation requirements. Simultaneously, a pilot project was carried out to investigate the impact of using IAF weather observations on the MM5 model forecasts.
  • An Indian Air Force (IAF) officer and a scientist from Kenya were trained on installation and running of ETA model.
  • A scientist from Sudan was trained on installation and running of MM5 model.

National Collaboration

- NCMRWF has been functioning as National Data Centre for ARMEX in order to facilitate data storage, updating, maintenance and easy access to the national research community.
- NCMRWF has been involved, by the way of meso-scale modeling, in interministerial project entitled “The development of mountain meteorology in Himalayas” alongside SASE (DRDO) and IMD. Boundary conditions are provided to SASE for running mesoscale model.

Highlights of Research and Development

The continuous process of R&D striving to improvise the weather forecast products for various purposes outlined above resulted in the following developments:

  • Utilization of Satellite Data

The uncertainties in retrieving various data products from different satellites were solved. The cloud tracked winds (CMVs) from geostationary satellites (like INSAT, METEOSAT, GMS and GOES), temperature/moisture profiles from polar orbital satellites of NOAA, USA were validated and successfully implemented in data assimilation system at NCMRWF.

  • Development of High Resolution Global Model

T170/L-28 global model with a high resolution of 75 km in linear space and 28 layers in the vertical had been developed. The model is run once a day to generate the forecast upto 7 days.

  • Implementation of Meso-Scale Models

In order to investigate heavy precipitation episodes associated with an active monsoon phase, two meso-scale models ETA (32 km resolution) and MM5 (90, 30 and 10 km resolution) were implemented. Continuous efforts are made to validate and improvise the forecast products from these models by analyzing the model parameters during different significant events like heavy rainfall, land slides, cloud bursts, gale winds etc.

International Visits

Several scientists from NCMRWF travelled abroad either on deputation or fellowships to conduct research or attend international seminars.

Progress of on-going Programmes

The Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) is an international collaborative project under the umbrella of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of WMO. NCMRWF will be participating in the CEOP project by providing the model output from its current operational version of the Global Analysis-Forecast System (T80/L18) for the EOP4 period (1st October 2003 to 30th September 2004).

A one-day Interaction Meeting of scientists from Indian Oragnizations with visiting High Level Delegation from NCAR, USA on Enhancing Cooperation in the Field of Atmospheric Sciences was held on November, 2003 at New Delhi.

Major Achievements

NCMRWF had come a long way since its inception in December, 1988 with the objective of developing operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models for forecasting weather in medium range (3-10 days) and for starting agromet advisory services (AAS) for the benefit of farmers in India.

The year 2003-2004, in particular, is significant since the weather forecast services from NCMRWF were recognized for its accuracy for a wide range of scientific and non-scientific applications. Requests for forecast products were received from different quarters, both national as well as international, few of which are mentioned below:

  • Analysed and forecast products were shared with different research institutes.
  • Special forecasts were issued to facilitate Satellite Launching (GSLV-D2), Tourism (Amarnath Yatra), Adventure (Mountain expedition), National Day celebrations, hot-air balloon launching, avalanche forecasting and sailing of naval ships. Operational forecasts were used in the planning of intensive observing periods and field experiments of the project ARMEX.
  • Implemented high resolution meso-scale models ETA and MM5.
  • Generated MM5 model real-time forecasts at 10 km resolution over the northwest Himalayan region in connection with the interministerial project entitled “The Development
    of Mountain Meteorology in Himalayas” involving DRDO and DST.
  • NCMRWF was recognized as “International Affiliate” of the University Centre for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), USA and also as a “Centre of Excellence” by the Third World Academy of Sciences, Trieste. It had been enlisted by the World Meteorological Organization as an “Emerging Special Centre”.
  • The scientists of NCMRWF were awarded international fellowships of significance. One visiting scientist fellowship spanning 2 months by International Geophysical Union and one Research Associate Fellowship spanning one year by Japan Society for Promotion of Sciences were availed through international visits.
  • The scientists of NCMRWF contributed towards promotion of science in India by guiding number of M.Sc., M.Tech. and MCA students in the field of meteorology, agricultural sciences and computer sciences and also by acting as resource personnel for SERC schools.

Survey of India

Survey of India, the Surveying and Mapping Organisation of Government of India bears a special responsibility to ensure that the country’s domain is explored and mapped suitably to provide vast variety of maps for expeditious and integrated development, security and prosperity of the country now and for generations to come. Besides, it has also been carrying
out Geodetic & Geophysical Surveys and allied research work in the areas of tidal, gravity, geomagnetic and project surveys for tunnel alignment, crustal movement and dam deformation studies etc. Some of the significant activities during the period under report are as under:

Technology Development Projects

i) Collection of tidal data and maintenance of modern tide gauges commissioned under DST and DOD assisted programmes is continued in order to publish Tide Tables for navigational activities and also to study sea-level variations.
ii) The following activities to bring out new series of topographical maps on WGS-84 datum have commenced in full swing:
a) Determination of transformation parameters between Everest Spheroid Datum and WGS-84 Datum using GPS technology.
b) Digitisation of existing topographical maps on 1:50,000 scale.
iii) National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) has been established as a part of Survey of India under Ministry of Science & Technology to promote and establish an infrastructure at the National Level for the availability of organised spatial and non-spatial data and multi-level information networking to contribute to local, national and global needs of sustained economic growth, environmental quality and stability with social progress.
iv) The following projects have been taken up in R&D Directorate of Survey of India:
a) GIS for Hyderabad city.
b) Updation of topographical maps on 1:25,000 scale using satellite data.

Basic Research Projects

i) Geodetic and Geophysical
a) Data generation and its processing for redefinition of Indian Geodetic Datum (Horizontal Network).
b) GPS data collection and analysis for determination of transformation parameter between Everest Spheroid Datum and WGS-84 Datum.
c) Adjustment of Second Level Net of India to refine Vertical Datum.
d) Geodetic and Geophysical (including repetitive) measurements using Global Positioning System and other sophisticated instrumentation for the study of seismicity and seismotectonics in earthquake prone areas and analysis of results.
e) Maintenance of National GPS Data Centre and other GPS Permanent Stations and collection of data for scientific studies.
ii) Oceanographic work
a) Analysis of Tidal Data for updating the Tidal Constituents for improvement in prediction of Tides.
b) Maintenance of National Tidal Data Centre and receiving/ processing of tidal data of various ports was continued.

Technologies transferred for commercialisation

i) Indigenous production of Photo Opaque as an import substitute item for touching of film negatives is continued for supply to various Survey of India Directorates/ Reproduction Units.
ii) The production of touch-up fluid again an import substitute item, required to correct scribed originals is continued in R&D Directorate for using within the department.

Technology Demonstration Projects undertaken in the area of Socio-Economic Development

i) Geodetic and Geophysical Surveys
a) Geodetic surveys for monitoring of tunnel alignment and other structures such as Dam, Power House Complex etc. for Tala Hydro-Electric Project in Bhutan are in progress.
b) Gravity and Geomagnetic observations across the country for various scientific studies were continued. During the year, the Geodetic and Research Branch (G&RB) would carry out the following tasks:

GPS observations 210 stations
Construction of GPS stations 210 stations
Precision Levelling 3340 lin km
EDM Traverse 180 lin km
Gravity observations 500 stations
Gravity on Bench Marks 250 stations
Geomagnetic repeat observations 80 stations
Astro Azimuth 150 stations
Installation of Tide Gauges 9 ports

(ii) Topographical activities

During the period under report, the following tasks would be carried out for topographical mapping and related activities:

(a) Control Work

Topo Triangulation 8,970 sq km
Aerial Triangulation 38,580 sq km
Traverse 2,200 lin km
Levelling 8,560 lin km

(b) Surveys

Photogrammetric surveys on various scales 51,710 sq km
Ground surveys on various scales 43,045 sq km
Boundary demarcation 300 lin km

Verification surveys for IAF

5,42,180 sq km

(c) Fair Mapping

IAF 1,41,76,000 sq km
Topographical 43,045 sq km
Digital Mapping 3,136 maps

(d) Printing

Printing of various types of maps 1,361 maps

iii) Digitisation and creation of Digital Cartographic databases

Departmental on various scales 361 maps
Extra Departmental on various scales 200 maps

Research Highlights

i) Repetitive Geodetic & Geophysical Surveys viz. GPS observations, Gravimetric observations and geomagnetic observations were continued for crustal movement studies in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Gujarat and Maharashtra to generate data and analyse results for the study of seismicity and seismotectonic activities in earthquake prone areas.

ii) A team of two officers from Survey of India participated in the 22nd Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica. The team carried out original survey of Maitri and surrounding area on 1:5,000 scale and densify network of control points in 3.0 sq km and carried out rigorous detailed survey with 5 metre contour interval on 1:5,000 scale in the proposed Antarctica area east of Indian station Maitri. Two officers from Survey of India are participating in the 23rd Antarctica Expedition.

Any other Information

i) International Boundaries

Demarcation, Relocation and Construction of boundary pillars and preparation of Strip-Maps of Indo-Bangladesh, Indo-Bhutan, Indo-Myanmar and Indo-Nepal boundaries, remained in progress during the year.

ii) Topographical Surveys

a) Surveys on 1:25 K scale are being taken up on selective basis according to the priorities indicated by the Central/ State Governments and other user communities.
b) Most of the maps on the primary scale of 1:50K covering the entire country have been printed. Revision surveys for updating these maps are in progress.
c) Maps on 1:250 K scale covering the entire country have been published and updation of these maps is in progress.
d) Compilation of various Geographical maps, State maps, Guide maps etc. are being continuously carried out. Also, surveys and mapping pertaining to various developmental schemes and projects of national importance are being executed.

iii) Digital Cartography

Digitization of 371 maps out of 394 maps on 1:250 K scale has been completed. Digitisation of 3,364 maps on 1:50 K scale has been completed and rest 1740 maps are likely to be completed during the year. 1050 maps on 1:25 K scale have been completed till date.

iv) Printing and Publication

Other than the regular publication of the topographical maps on various scales and Geographical maps, Guide maps, District Planning maps etc., the following publications were also brought out:

a) Magnetic Bulletin of Sabhawala Magnetic Observatory - This Bulletin contains the Horizontal and Vertical force and Declination as per data recorded in Sabhawala Magnetic Observatory, Dehradun.
b) Indian Tide Tables – 2003 (Tide Table containing tidal prediction of 76 ports).
c) Hugli River Tide Tables – 2003 (Tide Table containing tidal prediction of 06 ports).
d) Indian Tide Tables – 2004 and Hugli River Tide Tables – 2004 are also under printing.

v) Human Resource Development and Training

Various courses connected with surveying and mapping, digital cartography and special course on GPS Technology were continued at the Survey Training Institute, Hyderabad. Officers/trainees from the department, other government/ non-governmental organisations and foreign nationals are undergoing training in the Survey Training Institute.

Introduction
Mandate
Administrative Setup
Organizational Structure
Directory
Vigilance Cell
Annual Reports
  Annual Report 2011-2012
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  Annual Report 2009-2010
  Annual Report 2008-2009
  Annual Report 2007-2008
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  Annual Report 2004-2005
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Tenth Five Year Plan
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