Annual Report 2001 - 2002
National Council for Science & Technology
The National Council for Science & Technology
Communication (Rashtriya Vigyan Evam Prodyogiki Sanchar Parishad),
ever since its constitution in 1982, has been engaged in science
and technology popularization and inculcation of scientific
temper among the people. The emphasis has been on research
development, adaptation, promotion and use of different communication
methodologies. Various media, traditional and modern being
utilized for the purpose, include print, audio/radio, video/TV,
folk-forms, etc. The past year has witnessed spectacular achievements
and these are reported here.
- The project "Preparation of Annotated Bibliography
on Popular S&T Books in Major Indian Languages"
was initiated in 1996 covering 14 Indian languages. Each
bibliography consists of computerized records of books on
popular science with a brief annotation in English. 13 bibliographies
have been completed, latest being Urdu which reported 1670
books. Total books reported in 13 languages bring the number
of popular science books to about 24,640. The reports are
being analyzed to identify the gap areas so that further
action like developing new manuscripts encouraging translation,
etc., can be initiated.
- The National Institute of Science, Technology and Development
Studies (NISTADS), New Delhi carried out a scientific survey
during Kumbh Mela -2001, at Allahabad under a research study
entitled - Scientific Understanding among People within
Cultural Complex of Thought at Allahabad. The objective
of the survey was to analyze the difference of understanding
of science among masses and study the trend over a period
of 12 years. NISTADS during Kumbh Mela in 1989 and Ardh
Kumbh in 1995 carried out similar studies. About 3500 respondents
were interviewed using open-ended questionnaire (30 questions)
covering four related but different areas of scientific
research in addition to the data on personal information
of the respondents. The data collected is being computerized
for analysis and a detailed report is expected shortly.
Several research papers are expected from this pioneering
- S&T in Media/TV/Radio: A 26-part TV serial titled
"Manavodayam" (based on the 144 part Radio serial
"Manav-ka-Vikas") is under production at the Centre
for Development of Imaging Technology (C-DIT), Thiruvananthapuram,
in 4 languages, viz., Malayalam, Tamil, Hindi and English.
Shooting of 15 episodes has already been completed. The
remaining episodes are at various stages of production.
- Creating Awareness about Information Technology - Well-researched
exhibition material has been developed on Applications of
Information Technology in Health Care, Communication and
Networking, Disaster Management, Education, Entertainment
and Rural Development sectors. A theme pavilion projecting
S&T inputs in the area of Information Technology has
also been developed. It is proposed to have exhibitions
simultaneously at six different places with duration of
15 to 20 days each having one of the sub-areas listed above
along with a theme pavilion at all places.
Training of Science Communicators
Enhancing Science Coverage in Mass Media
- About 18 workshops were organized with the objective of
"Enhancement of Science Coverage in Mass Media".
Over 720 budding science writers/ journalists/ illustrators
were trained and exposed to frontline science journalism.
The programme was also extended to rural, remote and northeastern
- Special training programmes were undertaken to develop
specialized science writers for various mass media/formats/target
audiences/scientific disciplines. A workshop on science
writing for folk media was organized at Vigyan Parishad,
- An advanced level workshop of the participants of earlier
workshops on science writing/journalism/illustrations, who
have shown outstanding performance, by way of contributing
in mass media, was organized by Yuva Vigyan Parishad, Gwalior
at Datia (MP), in June 2001.
Science Communication Courses
- Masters' Programmes in S&T Communication are going
on at Lucknow University and Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya,
Indore. With the efforts put in, two research scholars have
received Ph.D. in science communication and some others
are working for the same.
- A review meeting of the course coordinators, students
and representatives of various media organizations was convened
at Devi Ahilya University, Indore, for exploring and enlarging
employment prospects for graduating students programme in
- Indian Science Communication Society (ISCOS), Lucknow,
an S&T based organization have started a one-year training
course in science journalism through distance education.
Some 40 students from across the country, as well as from
neighboring countries, have enrolled for this course.
- A paper on `Science & Environment Communication' has
been supported as part of a PG diploma course in `Journalism
& Mass Communication' at Vishwa Bharti, Shantiniketan,
- A medium term training course in science journalism is
being conducted during September-December 2001 at Vigyan
Parishad, Allahabad. About 50 budding science writers are
participated the training course.
- Science Association of Bengal, Kolkata is conducting a
part time course in science journalism during September
2001- January 2002 at Kolkata.
- First National Science Communication Congress (NSCC) was
organized by the Indian Science Writers' Association at
Lucknow during 28-29 November 2001 to discuss various research
and development aspects of science communication.
- A 7-day workshop Puppet for Science Communication was
held on street theatre as a medium for science communication,
during March 3-8,2001 at Jawahar Kala Kendra, Jaipur. During
the workshop more than 10 plays were developed on various
social themes with an attempt to removing myths and superstitions.
The specific themes chosen were child marriages, intoxication,
AIDS, population explosion, pollution, urbanization, illiteracy,
etc. More than 40 participants from various organisations
and groups participated in the programme.
- Rural Community Science Centre Trust, Shimoga (Karnataka)
and Karnataka Rajya Vigyan Parishad, Bangalore, organized
jointly a workshop on "Puppetry for S&T Communication"
at Chitra Kala School, Udipi. Over 40 science activists,
teachers and representatives of S&T based organisations
working in the area of science popularization attended the
workshop. The main objective of this workshop was to provide
an additional tool of communication to science communicators.
During the workshop more than 200 puppets were made and
about 15 new scripts were developed on various scientific
themes. During the last day of the workshop each group gave
a performance on a specific theme with the help of puppets
made during the workshop.
- In about 200 villages of Jhunjunu district of Rajasthan,
during a period of one month, a series of science popularization/communication
programme were organized. The issues taken up were evil
of child marriage, conservation of water, health and hygiene
and overcoming superstitions. Glove puppets were used as
a medium of communication in creating awareness, which was
followed by discussions between the communicators and the
- Aerodynamics: Voluntary Institute for Community Applied
Sciences (VICAS), Allahabad, a S&T based voluntary organization
organized two training workshops on "Aerodynamics -
the Science of Flight" at Gurukul Kangdi University,
Haridwar and at the City Montessori School, Lucknow. Around
30 teachers and students of senior secondary level participated
in each workshop, where they learnt the principles of flight
and dynamics of controls while making low cost gliders and
flying them. Each school team received a self-contained
kit to be able to organize this activity in their schools
after the training.
- Origami: Training workshops on teaching mathematics through
Origami for middle school teachers of mathematics was organized
by Saurashtra Education Foundation, Mumbai at Bhavnagar,
(Gujarat); Science Centre, Midnapore (W.B.) at Darjeeling;
and Karnataka Rajya Vijnana Parishat, Bangalore in three
districts of Karnataka. The main objective of this programme
is to make mathematics teaching and learning simple and
interesting for both students as well as teachers. In each
workshop 30-40 teachers/communicators from within the district
participated. The course module includes concepts of surface
area, volume, fractions, theorems of Geometry, concepts
of Algebra, etc.
- Learning of Science through hands-on-activities -
A workshop for training resource persons in low cost
learning of science through hand-on-activities was organized
by Science for Society, an S&T based voluntary organization
in Patna. Similar workshops were organized in Uttranchal
at Haldwani, Almora and Pithoragarh. Around 120 middle
school science teachers have been trained in these workshops.
- Activity Menu for Science Clubs - A workshop on `Development
of course materials for Science Club Activities in the Country'
was organized by Science Centre (Gwalior) at Bhopal. Subject
matter specialists drawn from various parts of the country
attended the workshop. New areas were identified for development
of material, including nature & environmental activities,
motor activities and community health activities. The activity
menu developed through this workshop is being brought out
as an attractive publication.
- Council Meeting- The 9th Meeting of the National Council
for S&T Communication was held on 27th November 2000
under the Chairmanship of Shri Bachchi Singh Rawat, Hon'ble
Minister of State for Science & Technology. The Council
discussed various ongoing activities of science & technology
popularization. While applauding the accomplishments various
measures to improve scientific temper among people were
suggested. The follow-up actions on the recommendations
have been initiated.
- Executive Committee of the Council - The 20th meeting
of the Executive Committee of the Council was held on 28th
June 2001. Existing programmes and policies were reviewed
and new initiatives were chalked out. A nation wide field
programme involving awareness generation on information
and communication technologies was recommended for implementation.
- Coordination Meeting with S&T Councils/ Departments
of States and UTs- The 8th Coordination Meeting with S&T
Councils/ Departments of States and UTs was held in May
2001 at Delhi. The meeting was convened to discuss S&T
popularization activities and proposals for the 10th five-year
plan period. Major central agencies like National Council
for Educational Research and Training, National Institute
of Science Communication, Vigyan Prasar, Centre of Environmental
Education, etc. also participated and provided details of
their programmes which could be harnessed by the states
for popularizing science and technology. The meeting adopted
major policy initiatives on methodologies and programmes,
for the coming years. Optimal utilization of scientists
raising resources of up to 30% of their budget over the
next three years, proper techno-economic assessment of science
city and planetarium projects were recommended. Stronger
links with industries, universities, research institutes
within the state for financial and technical support for
programmes of S&T communication and a closer approach
with inputs from other wings of government for holistic
development of a group of villages or a full block was recommended.
Other programmes adopted include preparation of youth for
emergencies-natural and man made, consumer empowerment by
detection of adulteration in farm and food inputs, soochana
jathas to reduce the digital divide and development of low
cost radio networks for education and emergency situations.
Secretary, DST felicitated the councils on their achievements
and exhorted them to develop need-based initiatives to empower
the people, which is the objective of scientific temper.
- Review and Assessment of S&T Popularization: A Review
Group for S&T communication programmes has been set
up under the Chairmanship of Dr. S.K. Joshi, former D.G.,
CSIR to assess the S&T popularization activities and
to suggest mid-course corrections. First meeting of the
group was held on 1st October 2001. The report is likely
to be finalized by the end of this year.
National Children's Science Congress-2001
- Germany Visit of NCSC Delegates: 18 child scientists selected
from the delegates of the 8th National Children's Science
Congress held at Howrah, visited important science institutions
in Germany from 20th - 29th April 2001. They were on an
exchange visit as part of the Festival of Germany in India.
A delegation of 21 young researchers from Germany had visited
India in December 2000 as part of this programme and participated
in the 8th National Children Science Congress.
- The theme of CSC-2001 was "Indigenous Scientific
Knowledge for a Better Tomorrow". The activity areas
were Agriculture and Food; Health and Hygiene; and Energy
and Materials. District level guide teachers training programmes
have organized and thousands of children have developed
study & research projects. The finding is presented
at district and state level conventions. The 9th National
Children's Science Congress was held at Pune during December
- To strengthen teachers a pilot training programme using
the latest and interactive technology available has been
developed. The package for one-day (5 hours) training programme
containing material for sessions on objectives of CSC, methodology
and content of children's project, documentation and presentation
of the project and evaluation criteria has been prepared
in a workshop held at Bhopal during August 18-21, 2001.
The pilot programme is planned for Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand,
using ISRO unlink facility and classrooms of District Primary
Education Programme (DPEP).
- CSC State Coordinators Meeting: A meeting of the State
Coordinators of Children's Science Congress was held in
DST in July 2001. Issues relating to i) increasing the reach
and depth, utilizing all possible publicity media; (ii)
improving the quality of projects; (iii) improving the standards
of evaluation and (iv) accountability at various levels
were discussed and action points decided.
- Child Scientists at the 89th Session of Indian Science
Congress: A delegation of Children scientists and guide
teachers from NCSC participated in the 89th Session of Indian
Science Congress held in Lucknow from 3-8, January 2002.
Popular lecture-demonstrations by eminent scientists were
arranged for them every day. An exhibition of their posters
was also organized during the Congress.
National Science Day 2001
- The National Science Day was celebrated in Technology
Bhavan, New Delhi, on February 28, 2001. Prof. M.M.Joshi,
Hon'ble Union Minister for Science & Technology, HRD
and Ocean Development was the Chief Guest and Shri B.S.
Rawat, Hon'ble Union Minister of State for S&T presided
over the function. On this occasion the NCSTC National Awards
for Science Popularization, DBT Bio-sciences Career awards,
DBT scholarships and Swaran Jyanti Fellowships were announced.
- National Science Day Lecture: Eminent management specialist
Dr Dhruv Nath, Senior Vice-President, National Institute
of Information Technology, New Delhi gave the National Science
Day lecture on "Information Technology for Science
Education". The speaker forcefully argued that concepts
can be initiated, experimentation encouraged and learning
can be interactive using well-designed computer software.
Shri B.S. Rawat, Hon'ble Minister for State for Science
&Technology presented a memento to the speaker and made
significant observations on the current scenario of Indian
- National Awards on S&T Popularization: The national
awards for science popularization for the year 2000 were
conferred on Prof. Yash Pal, an eminent scientist (General
category), jointly to Shri Devendra Mewari, Science Writer,
Panchkula & Dr. Amit Chakraborty, Radio Communicator,
Kolkata (S&T coverage in mass media) and Shri Arun Bhargava,
voluntary activist, Bhopal (science popularization among
children). Prof. Murli Manohar Joshi, Hon'ble Minister for
S&T, HRD & OD felicitated the winners and presented
them each awards, schools & members at the National
Science Day function.
- A poster exhibition on "Aerodynamics Science of Flight"
prepared by the Shastravahini, Pune was inaugurated at the
Technology Bhawan by Prof. M.M.Joshi, Hon'ble Union Minister
during the science day celebrations.
- National Technology Day (NTD) 2001 was celebrated on May
11, 2001 all over the country to focus attention of the
nation-students, teachers, engineers, researchers, entrepreneurs
and others on issues of technology. The theme selected this
year was "Developing spirit of innovation". During
the year S&T Councils of Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Kerala
catalyzed a number of programmes
Voluntary Blood Donation Project
- A pilot programme to train blood donor motivators and
medical social workers of Haryana was organized at Rohtak.
Resource persons from Association of Voluntary Blood Donors,
West Bengal and National Institute of Health & Family
Welfare, New Delhi conducted this workshop.
- To generate awareness on voluntary blood donation a statewide
programme has been catalyzed in all the 18 districts of
West Bengal by West Bengal Voluntary Blood Donors Association
senior students from about 200 high schools about 10 from
each district would be participating in an innovative quiz
- Scientific awareness about blood donation among parents,
teachers and students is being promoted by Safe Blood Organization,
New Delhi in selected schools using slide sets, posters
& video films during 2001. So far programmes have been
completed in 8 schools. Quiz programmes, audio-visual shows,
answering queries about blood donation are some of the elements
of the programmes.
Science Exhibition/Mela/Street Play etc
- Vigyan Jatha on Education, Health and Safety- A month
long Jatha, "Navonmeshan", was organized during
January - February 2001 by Yuva Vigyan Parishad, Gwalior
(M.P). The Jatha covered a distance of about 2000-km touching
about 20 tehsils in 6 districts and directly interacted
with the people of more than 100 villages and towns. A lot
of information on local traditions, natural resources, folk
tales, toys and games has been collected from this programme.
These will be properly compiled as part of follow-up programme.
The valedictory function of the Jatha was organized at Gwalior
on National Science Day, 28 February 2001.
- A Vigyan Mela, "Indradhanush" was organized
by SEARCH, Ghaziabad an S&T based voluntary organization
during August 9 - 11, 2001 in association with Cambridge
School, NOIDA (U.P.). Main objectives of this programme
was to expose children to a wide variety of activities including
lectures, demonstrations, face-to-face with scientists,
film shows, display of science and technology used by artisans,
etc., besides providing them an opportunity to take part
in various competitions like making scien-toons (science+cartoon),
science quiz, essay writing, etc. Special attraction of
this three-day fair was a competition of projects, concepts,
ideas and models on the theme "My search, My discovery"
aimed at promoting imagination and creativity among children.
About 2000 students of 15 schools of the district and more
than 3000 residents visited the fair. During the programme
Prof Yash Pal, eminent scientist and others also interacted
with the children.
- Emergence of Modern Science (EMS)- A variety of programmes
for students, teachers and general public through active
participation of government/voluntary organisations/ Science
Clubs were organized. State level activities/competitions
for school children including model/exhibit making, quizzes,
painting, etc. on relevant topics was organized. Winners
were invited to a national meet where they were exposed
to developments in S&T in various fields through lectures/
demonstrations and visits to leading R&D labs and establishments
and interaction with leading scientists of the country.
Scholarships @ Rs 300/- p.m. for first five winners at the
state level (two for secondary and three for higher secondary)
for a period of one year were also announced.
- Awareness programme on weather, environment and climate:
Karnataka Rajya Vijnana Parishat, Bangalore and Indian Meteorological
Society (IMS), Bangalore Chapter organized a two-day awareness
programme in July 2001 on weather, environment and climate
at Bangalore. Nearly 2500 students and 500 teachers drawn
from 200 local schools and general public attended the programme
which consisted of lectures-demonstrations by experts, exhibition
of posters developed by IMS, elocution competition, students'
project presentation. An activity comer and displays by
scientific organisations like Indian Space Research Organization,
Disaster Management Cell of Indian Meteorological Department
were also set up.
- Model Rocketry: Belgaum Association for Science Education,
Belgaum organized two workshops for training resource persons
in `Model Rocketry' in Karnataka. Participants were trained
in various aspects of single stage and multi stage rockets.
In the process they learnt various scientific principles
like thrust, drag, laws of motion, etc. Low cost material
and kits were provided to the participants for this activity.
Stimulating Interest in Science among School
- Contact Programme for Talented School Students: To attract,
encourage and create interest among bright students about
careers in S&T, science students of class XI closely
interact with an eminent scientist of a national laboratory
or a leading university. This programme was initiated during1999.
During this period over 20 professor in a such programmes
have been organized at Kumaun University, Almora Campus;
BSIP, Lucknow; Garhwal and Sikkim Units of G.B. Pant Institute
of Himalayan Environment and Development; Govt. P.G. College,
Pithoragarh, Uttaranchal; Tezpur University, Assam; CAZRI,
Jodhpur; Punjab University, Chandigarh; Burdwan Raj College,
Burdwan; RRL, Jorhat; JSS College for Pharmacy, Ooty; Patna
University, Patna; Dhaward University; and IISc, Bangalore.
Average 25-30 students participate in each of these programmes.
- Sensitization of Students to Application of S&T in
Industry: Concepts and principles of science find various
applications in industry. These serve to trigger curiosity
amongst brilliant students. During the year over 15 programmes
have been organized in Tamil Nadu, Assam, Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. About 250-300 students and teachers
participated in each of these programmes. A cross section
of students from different schools make a technical visit
to an industrial unit and follow it up with report preparation
- Lecture-cum-Demonstration Programme: Eminent scientists
including fellows of national academies have responded to
a new programme (started in 2000) for giving lectures and
demonstration on new dimensions of science. These are arranged
in schools, colleges and universities. During the year seven
organizations were supported and over 125 lecture - demonstrations
arranged at Dharward, Chandigarh, Birbhum (W.B.), Lucknow,
Guwahati, Chennai and Almora.
Nature Activity Camps
- Awareness programme on Vermitech: The Institute of Research
in Soil Biology and Biotechnology, the New College, Chennai
conducted an awareness programme on vermi-composting by
associating students of class VII, VIII and IX from 50 schools
in Chennai having science, nature or eco-clubs. The programme
included lectures and demonstrations along with practical
training on setting up of a vermi-culture unit at each centre.
Every school was provided with material giving detailed
description on how a vermitech unit can be set up. Importance
of using local varieties of earthworms and their advantages
were emphasized. Some of the children took this technology
home to educate their parents about domestic was being disposal.
- A national workshop on creating awareness among school
children about proper domestic garbage disposal and its
recycling was organized by Dharamitra at the Sewagram (Wardha)
in April 2001. Around 25 participants from different parts
of the country were trained during the workshop.
- Root & Shoot Programme: This programme has been developed
specifically as an activity of school or local science clubs.
Under this action oriented programme, trees are planted
and maintained for a minimum period of three years under
the banner of the respective clubs who maintain the life
history of their trees in record books. The hands-on activities,
experiments and observations give the children opportunities
to understand various components of environment and their
relationships with each other.
S&T for the Visually Challenged
A new programme involving development of software
- science kits/books on selected topics in S&T with tactile
diagrams, talking books (audio cassettes), a science magazine
(talking magazine) has been launched. Sri Ramakrishna Mission
Vidyalaya College of Education, Coimbatore, National Institute
for Visually Handicapped (NIVH), Hyderabad, and National Association
for the Blind (NAB), New Delhi have developed a few prototypes
of kits on mechanics, magnetism, time & distance etc.,
which are being improved under this initiative.
- "SROTE", the science & technology news and
features service started in 1988 with a view to enhancing
the quantity and quality of S&T coverage in Hindi newspapers
and periodicals is being continued. 'SROTE' was at the same
time aimed at making available reference materials for teachers,
students and others engaged in S&T communication. A
workshop to train science writers for "SROTE"
was organized during March 30-April 1, 2001 by Eklavya at
Bhopal. 35 students of journalism from the Makhan Lal Chaturvedi
National University of Journalism, Bhopal and Satya Sai
College, Bhopal participated.
- Support was given for continued publication of six popular
science magazines, i.e. Prayukti (Bengali), Nirantar Soch
(Punjabi), Swadeshi Science (Malayalam), Bigyan Tarang (Oriya),
and Kalaikathir (Tamil).
- A book on "Science Communication through Folk Media",
was brought out by Vigyan Parishad, Allahabad, as an offshoot
of a workshop on science writing for folk media.
- `NCSTC Communications', a bilingual (Hindi and English)
monthly newsletter is coming out regularly. Till December
2001, 155 issues have been published. This is being circulated
to more than 7000 addresses across the country, which included
various policy makers, individuals and organizations interested
in science communication.
Resources Data Management System (NRDMS)
Natural Resources Data Management System (NRDMS)
is a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary S&T Programme
of DST to develop methodology and techniques for operationalising
the concept of local level planning. Based on the principles
of Geographic Information System (GIS), the Programme aims
at setting up district level resource databases, demonstrating
their utility in local level planning, developing Spatial
Decision Support Systems, promoting R&D in spatial data
technologies and training of potential end-users. Under the
Programme, pilot scale district GIS Centers have been set
up in selected districts of the country to construct GIS-based
resource databases and demonstrate their applicability. To
support building up of the resource databases, a GIS software
package (GRAM++) has been developed on WINDOWS 95/98/NT platforms
with features to facilitate spatial data retrieval, analysis
and modeling. Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) have
been developed in selected sectors like water management,
land use planning, energy budgeting, and infrastructure development
to help drawing up of integrated development strategies and
aid decision making.
During the year 2001-02, a simpler and more
user-friendly GRAM++ based VEC VIEWER has been developed for
promoting the use of GIS technologies at districts, blocks
and panchayats. Application studies have been carried out
to calibrate hydrological models, simulate the aquifer behaviour,
and evaluate alternative strategies for soil conservation.
Studies have been conducted under the sub-programmes 'Hydrology
of Small Watersheds', 'Ecological Modelling of Himalayas',
'Coastal Zone Management', and 'Landslides' in order to upgrade
the NRDMS tools and methods. GIS Centres have been set-up
in selected districts for testing of the tools and methods
and their demonstration to the local level planners. District
Resource Profile for Bankura (West Bengal) and the GRAM++
Package were released in a National level Workshop held in
New Delhi on 9-11 October 2001.
District GIS Centers
On the request and active collaboration of the
concerned State Governments, district level GIS Centres have
been set up for demonstration of the use of NRDMS tools and
methods in the following districts during 2001-02:
i) Tamil Nadu (Vellore, Podukottai)
ii) Uttar Pradesh (Allahabad, Pratapgarh)
iii) Karnataka (Madikeri, Bellary, Mandya)
Efforts are being made to set up such Centres
in Assam and Nagaland states. Selected GIS Centers in Karnataka
have been taken over by the State Government for updation
of the databases and their use by the local Zilla Panchayats.
A more user-friendly software module - VEC VIEWER
- has been developed for displaying and retrieving maps and
attribute data pertaining to a district / region. Capable
of supporting viewing of various geo-referenced data layers
in vector mode and extracting the collateral attribute information,
VEC VIEWER provides facilities for simple / advanced querying
and generating thematic maps as per the exact need of the
end-user. Functions for linking the maps with the attribute
information have been further simplified.
Additional functionalities have been added to
GRAM++ to generate Digital Terrain / Elevation Models (DTM
/ DEMs) using the popular Triangular Irregular Networks (TIN)
technique. Several other functions of GRAM++ e.g. those in
the MAPEDIT and VECTOR ANALYSIS modules have been further
tested and bugs fixed on the basis of the feedbacks received
from different user groups.
GRAM++ tools have been used to develop customized
applications. A prototype application - GRAM Drishti - has
been developed and tested using GRAM++ controls for utilization
by the Government of Madhya Pradesh in district /block level
planning of various service facilities in the State.
A software module has been developed to facilitate
conversion of printed maps to digital format using the technique
of on-screen digitization. The module is capable of separating
the text from graphics and different colours in a scanned
image to speed up automatic tracing. Manual tracing facility
has also been provided in the module.
A language converter has been developed to transliterate
a English word/ phrase to Hindi or Bengali to facilitate spread
and use of GIS technologies at the local level. The Converter
has been tested in conjuction with the ECOLAND Module developed
for allocating land units for different uses in a watershed.
It has been demonstrated using the data sets for Arkasa watershed
in Bankura district (West Bengal) for display of maps in Bengali
Calibration and validation of SWAT model
The SWAT hydrological model has been calibrated
and validated using the GIS database developed for the Gandheswari
sub-basin (Bankura, West Bengal) that was earlier instrumented
for collecting hydro-meteorological data. Based on the local
land use /cover, soil type, terrain characteristics, and the
hydro-meteorology, the model was run for a period of one year
for a nominal calibration. Investigation of the results revealed
that the proportion of run-off generated by the area has been
too low and erratic when compared against the values of rainfall.
This is explained by the fact that the number of observations
taken during the day to record the run-off has been relatively
less and most of the high flow events skipped the time of
observation. In such small watersheds with a short response
time for run-off, it is desirable to have frequent observations
of the run-off, possibly with the help of automatic level
recorders. The observed values compare well with the simulated
results in the recession portion of the hydrograph curve indicating
that a frequency of three observations per day is adequate
during the low flow period.
Ground water modelling
Studies have been carried out using GIS techniques
to model the behaviour of the aquifer (water table) system
of Lapasiya watershed, Siwane sub-basin, Hazaribagh (Bihar).
The outcomes are expected to be useful in preparing a budget
for the local groundwater resource, demarcating areas for
sinking of borewells, optimising pumping rate, and identifying
locations/ areas for long-duration pumping without any adverse
effect on the aquifer system. Sensitivity of the model to
various input parameters e.g. recharge, evapo-transpiration,
and hydraulic conductivity has been determined. Various other
inputs to the model include constant head boundary, distribution
of pumping and observation wells in the watershed, and upper
and lower boundaries of the aquifer. The model has been simulated
with a constant pumping rate starting from 200 m3/day for
each deep bore well to estimate draw down for different periods.
Lower rates have been tried to generate alternative scenarios
and suggest the optimum pumping rate. Simulation indicated
that the aquifer could be pumped with a slow rate (most appropriately
at a rate of 100 m3/day) due to high draw down with pumping
for shorter durations.
DSS for Soil Conservation
A Decision Support System (DSS) has been developed
to assess the impact of alternative soil conservation strategies
on the local sediment yield and help draw up a site-specific
and cost effective conservation strategy for minimizing soil
loss. A linear programming tool built into the DSS supports
in the optimization of the input cost. The DSS has been tested
in Nagwan watershed of Hazaribagh district (Jharkhand). The
GIS database used for testing of the DSS comprises of thematic
maps like contour, soil, landuse and the associated attribute
data. The SWAT hydrological model has been used to delineate
the Hydrological Response Units (HRU) in the watershed. Sediment
yield estimates and various input details on crop production,
cost of cultivation, resource limitation and social preference
for crops have been used for suggesting an optimum soil conservation
strategy for the watershed. Scenarios for three different
conservation strategies have been evaluated. Conservation
works implemented in the HRUs having areas more than 500 Ha
and soil loss of 40 tons per Ha are expected to yield the
minimum sediment from the test watershed.
Hydrology of Small Watersheds
Launched in 1996-97, the Coordinated Programme
on "Hydrology of Small Watersheds" primarily aims
at validating and calibrating hydrological models for small
watersheds for drawing up water budgets, estimate sediment
yield, assess biomass production in the watersheds. Under
the Programme, a pair of treated and untreated small watersheds
(about 10 sq. km.) have been selected and instrumented in
four different agro-ecological regions of the country to collect
hydro-meteorological data on daily / weekly /monthly / seasonal
basis. A GIS database for each watershed containing maps on
watershed boundary, drainage, land use, soil, contour, geology,
geomorphology, and lineament and the hydro-meteorological
data sets collected over the last few years has been developed.
The databases are being used to model the local hydrology,
devise methods/ techniques for hydrological monitoring of
watersheds. Biophysical indicators for watershed monitoring
and tools for regionalizing the watershed-specific outcomes
to other small watersheds located in identical agro-ecological
regions are also being developed. Based on these outcomes,
local land and water management strategies are proposed to
be drawn up.
A two-week long training programme on 'Hydrology
of Small Watersheds' was organized in April, 2001 at the Centre
for Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM), Kozikode
to expose officials from selected Line Departments of different
State Governments and Water & Land Management Institutes
to the advanced techniques of managing the watersheds.
A Geo-technical Laboratory has been set up at
Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun to facilitate
testing and calibration of soil and rock samples and measure
the geo-technical properties of landslide mass useful in mass
movement modeling and risk assessment.
Detailed geological and geotechnical studies
have been conducted at Chandmari Landslide, Gangtok (Sikkim)
to develop a database to investigate various factors affecting
the probability of landslides. Surveys have been carried out
to collect data on land use pattern, elevation, vegetation,
drainage and profile of the hill slopes at selected sections
of the landslide. Total Station has been used in the survey.
In-situ standard penetration test carried out and undisturbed
soil and rock samples have been collected in six boreholes
of 20 metre depth located in the slide area. These data sets
have been used to carry out the stability analysis of the
Field trials on the technique of soil nailing
on a landslide along Rishikesh - Badrinath Road (NH-58) near
Rishikesh have been conducted. Slope has been analysed in
both unsaturated and saturated conditions. Based on the outcomes
of the analysis and study of the soil samples collected from
the site, soil nails and their deployment pattern at the slide
area were designed and the nails installed. Subsequent analysis
indicates an improvement in the safety factor of the slope
to the extent of 12.6%.
Linkages have been built with the potential
end-users like the Konkan Railway Corporation and the District
Administration, Uttarkashi (Uttaranchal) to help evolve site
specific R&D projects to address their information needs
relating to control and prevention of landslides.
Bio-geo database and ecological modeling
The Task Force set-up on "Bio-geo database
and ecological modelling for Himalayas" has submitted
its report. Based on the recommendations, a three pronged
strategy has been adopted to facilitate drawing up of plans
for sustainable development. The strategy includes : building
up of comprehensive databases on bio and geo resources and
socio-economy for local level planning, integration of data
sets for evolving application strategies for the conservation
and management of the Himalayan eco-system; capacity building
and dissemination of information products to the user communities
for plan formulation. Three representative watesheds in each
of the three altitudinal transects of Himachal Pradesh and
Uttaranchal covering lower, middle and higher Himalayan ranges
have been identified in consultation with the concerned State
Governments. Development of a decision support system for
integrated land use planning for the sub-Himalayan region
and a soil database for watershed development in lesser Himalayas
of Himachal Pradesh have been taken-up during the year.
Microwave Remote Sensing and SAR Interferometry
In order to introduce and promote the application
of microwave remote sensing technology amongst the earth and
agricultural scientists, a two day Brainstorming Session was
organized by Haryana Remote Sensing Application Centre at
Gurgaon on 26-27 February 2001. Experts from different premier
institutions working in the field of remote sensing participated
in the Brainstorming. It was recommended that the technology
should be further developed through adequate training of manpower
and promotion of research & development in areas like
soil moisture studies, crop-growth modeling, flood zonation,
glacier monitoring, and snow melt run-off.
In collaboration with SNR - IRECC Italy, a workshop-cum-training
programme on SAR Interferometry was organized at IIT, Bombay
during March 28 - April 6, 2001. A select group of scientists
drawn from different research and academic institutions from
both the countries participated in the programme. A collaborative
research programme for development of a SAR Simulator has
been evolved with the involvement of concerned institutions.
Coastal Resource Management and Conservation
The sub-programme on 'Coastal Resource Management
and Conservation' seeks to understand the processes that maintain
the health and productivity of the coastal eco-system, identify
the resource flow pathways, and forecast the type and extent
of future conflicts in resource use in the context of changing
social, economic and political circumstances. During the year,
studies have been launched for modelling the impact of development
on the coastal eco-system.
Information Technology for Sustainable
Agriculture in Punjab
There have been significant changes in the natural
resource base of Punjab due to intensive agriculture in the
state. Some of the problems, in this context, include fall
in ground water table, water logging, degradation of soil
health and severe soil erosion. There has thus been a need
to explore alternative and more sustainable routes to agricultural
development. It is required to demonstrate the potential of
information technology to decision makers and the local level
communities in this task. Realising this requirement, a project
has been launched in March 2001 with an assistance of US $
1.25 million from UNDP over a period of two years. Five districts
- Hoshiarpur, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Patiala and Muktsar - are
being covered under the Project. The Technology Information,
Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) has been identified
to mplement the project.
During the year, studies have been launched to develop district
level spatial resource profiles, establish local information
hubs, model crop-weather dynamics, soil moisture profile and
forewarn the pest & disease problems. In addition to rice
and wheat, possibilities of introducing other cropping systems
like maize-wheat, soyabean-winter maize and cotton-wheat are
proposed to be studied. In response to the farming community's
enthusiasm to adopt alternative cropping systems, a limited
field experiment involving 20 farmers has been launched in
Patiala district. Each of the farmers has agreed to cultivate
chickpeas instead of wheat in one acre of land during the
present Rabi cropping season. Similar field experiments in
other districts are being planned for the Kharif. Spatial
and temporal variation of micronutrient status and soil biology
have been initiated.
A National Workshop on "GIS Technologies
for Sustainable Development at Local Level" was organized
in New Delhi on October 9-11,2001 to showcase various products
/modules developed under the UNDP-NRDMS Project. GRAM++ Package
and the Bankura Resource Profile were released during the
Workshop. Scientists, Academicians, Administrators, end-users,
and leading experts from USA, UK, and Australia attended the
workshop to exchange experiences and deliberate on strategies
to upgrade and apply GIS in exploring alternative strategies
to sustainable development. Operationalising a multi-tier
spatial data infrastructure, developing models /tools for
managing the land & water systems; research and development
in areas like visualization, 3D GIS, high resolution data
generation; promotion of use and dissemination of GIS-based
tools / products, building a network of institutions for the
training of the end-users; introduction of GIS in school curriculum
were some of the major recommendations of the Workshop.
For Development Of State Councils For Science & Technology
Department of Science & Technology, Government.
of India is providing core and project support to State S&T
Councils in various States and Union Territories to enable
them to effectively function in policy formulation, planning,
coordination and promotion of S&T activities. As a result
of DST's efforts, State S&T structures have been set up
in all the states including the three newly formed states.
During the year, DST continued its core support to State S&T
councils and initiated a number of location specific demonstration
projects and state relevant S&T studies. During the year,
DST organized a regional meeting of North-Eastern State S&T
Councils and Departments at Aizawl. A regional meeting of
Southern States is also planned to be held some time in February
2002. During the year, two meetings of Project Evaluation
Group have been held in which 34 proposals were considered.
Out of these projects 17 Projects were approved. The third
meeting of Project Evaluation Group is to be held on 7 - 8
February, 2002 in which 24 proposals will be considered. All
the approved projects are expected to be sanctioned during
the current year. DST also organised three Group Monitoring
Meetings to monitor various on-going projects as well as to
assess the performance of completed projects. In these monitoring
meetings 31 projects were monitored. The main activities during
the year 2001-2002 are enumerated below :
DST launched a special initiative to demonstrate
the technology developed by Facilitation Centre for Industrial
Plasma Technologies, Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi
Nagar to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology and
present the various aspects related to the pyrolysis process.
As a result of DST's efforts, proposals have been mobilized
from the States of Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Goa and Andaman
& Nicobar Islands. These demonstration projects are likely
to be initiated during the current year itself. A video presentation
was held on the progress of the on-going Micro-Hydel Project
at Thuvopisu, Nagaland at Delhi. It is expected that the project
will be commissioned by the end of current year. The Micro-Hydel
Project at Dailong, Manipur has also taken off and the work
is in progress. The Micro-Hydel Project at Thangu, Sikkim
is for implementation. The projects on setting up Reverse
Osmosis Plant for treatment of hard/brackish water in Rajasthan
and Gujarat are under implementation. These plants are likely
to be commissioned by the end of current year. The project
on upliftment of Small and Marginal Farmers through a novel
concept based on application of hydrams, has been completed
successfully in Himachal Pradesh. 10 nos. of Hydrams have
been installed in the State of Himachal Pradesh at the projected
cost of 17.5 lakhs.
Replication of Success Models
A Pollution Control Unit (PCU) has been installed
in Patna, Bihar in Cupola Furnace based on the technology
developed by Punjab State Council on Science & Technology.
The Technical Back-up Unit (TBU) for Solar Passive Housing
Technology popularisation set up in HP State S&T Council
is making efforts to popularize; disseminate and replicate
this technology amongst other hill states. DST has also made
efforts to replicate the technology developed by Punjab State
Council in the area of brick-kilns. Towards this endeavour,
department supported a conference of Brick-kiln Industries
held at Chandigarh.
Studies/Surveys of Interest to States
During the year, the studies on S&T intervention
for assessing ecological degradation in Southern Tamilnadu
Agro-climatic Zone, documentation of medicinal plants in Thar
Desert of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh are on-going.
Location specific R&D Technology Development
The project on Development of Prototypes of
Efficient Fishing Crafts and Gears for the wetlands of Manipur
is to be initiated during the current year. The project on
developing energy-efficient cardamom drier for Sikkim had
found acceptance amongst farming community of Sikkim. The
project on Poultry Diseases at Namakkal has resulted in significant
findings regarding the causes of these diseases and final
report is expected to suggest measures to control these diseases.
State Councils Exhibitions
During the year, DST mobilised participation
of State Councils in the exhibition, "Shimla Knowledge.Com"
( Shimla) , "Perfect Health Mela" ( Delhi) and "
Swadeshi Vigyan Mela " ( Kochi )
State Council Meetings
During the year, DST participated in the General
Body/Executive Committee meetings of State S&T Councils
of Bihar; Chattisgarh; Kerala; West Bengal; Tamilnadu; Tripura;
Haryana; UP ; Punjab etc.
Support to S&T Secretariat
During the year, support has been continued
to all the State S&T Councils receiving support from DST
during the previous years. In addition, support will be initiated
for Chhatisgarh State S&T Council. DST is also making
efforts to catalyze setting up on S&T Secretariats in
the other two newly formed states of Uttranchal and Jharkhand.
During the year, a regional meeting of State
S&T Councils/Departments of North-eastern Region was organised
during October 4-5, 2001 at Aizawl to share the experiences
of various State S&T Councils. The meeting resulted in
certain specific action points related to rain water harvesting,
malaria, solar passive heating etc.to accelerate S&T activities
in North-Eastern Region.
The website of State S&T Councils has been
hosted on the web and steps are being taken to continuously
improve its content and presentation style. A brochure on
the activities under the State S&T Councils programme
of DST is also being brought out. The website of Technology
Business Information System (TBIS) developed under a DST-CSIR
joint project by Manipur State S&T Council has been launched.
Jai Vigyan Science & Technology Mission
for Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Under the Mission, DST has initiated a project
on Preparing Inventory of Medicinal Plants in Andaman &
Nicobar Islands. This project has been monitored and is progressing
well. Efforts have been made to initiate the project relating
to plastic waste disposal, instrument repair, training in
vermiculture and aquaculture etc.