Annual Report 2000 - 2001
India Meteorological Department
Technology Development Projects
Under the Project, "Andhra Pradesh Hazard
Mitigation and Emergency Cyclone Recovery", Cabinet Committee
of Economic Affairs (CCEA) has approved the procurement of
3 Doppler Weather Radars, 100 Cyclone Warning Dissemination
System, (CWDS) and 10 High Speed Wind Recorders (HSWR) at
a cost of Rs.72.15 crores. Two Doppler Weather Radars, METEOR
- 1500S, procured from M/S Gematronik, Germany based on latest
state of art, will soon replace existing S-band radars at
Kolkata and Chennai. Ten sets of High Speed Wind Recorders
(HSWRs) have been procured, out of which four sets have been
successfully installed at Meteorological Office, Digha, Paradeep,
Gopalpur and Kalingapatnam.
Two additional sets of Dual Base Line Transmissometers, procured
rom M/S Impulsphysik, Germany, were successfully installed
and commissioned at IGI Airport, New Delhi, with effect from
11-12-2000 to meet the Runway Visual Range (RVR) requirements
of ILS Category-III operations.
Four Broad Band Seismograph systems have been installed and
made operational at New Delhi. Ten seismological field stations
and Central recording stations at IMD, HQ New Delhi have been
installed under the Delhi Telemetry System and made operational.
Site preparation for other six stations has completed.
A new system, to process INSAT-2E, VHRR (IR, VIS & Water
Vapour) and CCD (VIS, NIR, SWIR) data, has been installed
and commissioned). INSAT-2E has a Very High Resolution Radiometer
(VHRR) and Charged Coupled Device (CCD) pay-load of higher
resolutions. A new Primary Data Utilisation Station (PDUS)
has been installed in Sat. Met. Division for reception of
METEOSAT-5 data on a regular basis.
Recently, India Meteorological Department has further modernised
its National Meteorological Telecommunication Centre (NMTC)
with a new state-of-the-art switching computer which has capabilities
comparable with any advanced WMO (World Meteorological Organization)
Centres on the GTS (Global Telecommunication System). The
system has many advanced facilities like handling VSAT links,
Dial-up Telex, handling Metfax, Auto fax in, Auto Fax out
facility, Data Modem-in, Data Modem-out, exchange of T4 fax
and handling sea area bulletins (under Global Maritime Distress
& Safety System) broadcast system.
The website of IMD's HQ, New Delhi was made operational from
1st June, 2000 which contains dynamically updated information
on all India weather and forecasts, special monsoon report,
INSAT satellite cloud pictures updated every three hours,
Limited Area Model (LAM) generated products and prognostic
charts, special weather warnings, tropical cyclone information
and warnings, including tracks predicted by the newly developed
dynamical model. Weekly and monthly rainfall distribution
maps, earthquake reports etc. This also contains a lot of
static information including temperature and rainfall normals
over the country and a brief overview of the activities and
services rendered by India Meteorological Department. This
site can be accessed round-the-clock with the following URL:
http://www.imd.ernet.in. In addition, IMD's websites have
also been made operational at the Regional Meteorological
Centres, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai and the Positional Astronomy
For public information and awareness, an interactive Voice
Response System (IVRS), popularly known as 'weather on telephone',
was started by the NMTC with effect from July 2000. One can
access current weather and forecast for major Indian cities
by dialing a convenient 4-digit telephone number 1717. This
is the easiest way for a common man to know the weather of
a place of his choice at the cost of one local call.
Six more Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs) have been added
to the IMD's telecommunication network linking important Seismic
Observatories, ACWCs, CWCs, CDRs and the Weather Forecasting
Office, Pune, with the Telecommunication Division at New Delhi.
For the first time a DIWE instrument with digital display
unit was fabricated and supplied to INS Garuda, Kochi. The
system was installed and is working satisfactorily.
TIFAC (DST), SPIC, and IMD have commenced coordination for
developing a polymer-membrane based electrolyser for generation
of hydrogen gas in situ for Met. purpose.
A thermistor Calibration Chamber has been commissioned with
a capability of calibrating thermistors, individually in batches,
from +50° to -90° C.
Carbon hygristors, having faster rate of response and capable
to give RH values in sub-zero temperatures upto -60° C
have been introduced at RMO, Ayanagar with good results.
Basic Research Projects
- Research work on development of Long Range Forecast models
for different regions and periods, was carried out as follows:
- A new quasi-Lagrangian dynamical model for cyclonic track
prediction based on NCEP Washington hurricane model was
developed and made operational in IMD. The model was used
for forecasts of movement of cyclonic storms in the Indian
seas in operational situations to provide numerical guidance
to synoptic forecasters.
- The operational 16 parameters Parametric and Power Regression
models were modified by replacing four predictors, whose
relationship with monsoon rainfall has declined in recent
years, with four new predictors. Three new predictors: Arabian
Sea SST, Indian Ocean SST and Europe Pressure Gradient)
have been identified by research carried out in IMD. The
model coefficients were recomputed and used for the operational
forecasts for monsoon 2000.
- The Experimental Models based on Power Regression, Dynamic
Stochastic Transfer, Neural Network and Principal Component
Regression were also refined using new predictors.
- Under the Mountain Meteorology project, now renamed as
Project PARWAT, upper air station at Manali (HP) was made
- Micro-earthquake survey of Chamoli earthquake has been
completed. A preliminary report on Chamoli earthquake of
March 1999 and aftershock activities has been published
as a monograph (Seismology No.2/2000).
Ongoing Research Work
The Seismology Division is maintaining 45 National
Seismological Observatories and 9 river valley project observatories
to monitor the seismicity around the Dams.
Agrometeorological Division at Pune has undertaken a study
of interrelation between crop pests and diseases and concurrent
weather factors in collaboration with Agricultural Universities
and Research Institutes with a view to forewarn their outbreaks,
on the basis of weather-based models. Efforts are also being
made to delineate the risk zones and also likely epidemics
of different major crop pests and diseases so that warning
against their outbreak and also subsequent control measure
can be adopted in time.
Ground based remote sensing techniques using ground truth
radiometer, are being carried out for wheat and maize crops
on experimental basis. A number of collaborative projects
have been undertaken with Agricultural institutes of the country
for studying crop- weather relationship.
Empirical statistical models have been developed using multiple
correlation and regression technique to forecast crop yields
on operational basis for 26 sub-divisions growing Kharif Rice
and for 16 sub-divisions growing Wheat. Based on these models,
pre-harvest monthly crop yield forecast for Kharif rice are
being prepared for 15 States and total rice production for
the country as a whole from August to December as well as
for wheat for 12 States and total wheat production for the
country as a whole from January to May.
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) commenced a Background
Air Pollution Monitoring Network 'BAPMoN' Programme in 1972
(and under Global Atmosphere Watch GAW since 1989). India
maintains a network of ten regional BAPMoN stations to monitor
(I) Prediction Chemistry, and (ii) Atmospheric Turbidity,
on long term basis, and (iii) Total Suspended Particulate
Matter at Jodhpur. Environmental appraisal was undertaken
of a number of industrial and power projects and manning proposals
of the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
Ocean Research Cruise
IMD participated in ORV Sagar Kanya Cruises
under the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) programme.
IMD also acted as the main coordination centre during the
Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) project.
IMD Grant-in-Aid Programmes
India Meteorological Department is providing
financial support for some selected research projects to research
Institutes/Universities/Societies for encouraging the young
scientists to keep up research work in the field of Meteorology
and Atmospheric Sciences. A contribution of Rs.20,000/- was
granted to the Indian Meteorological Society (IMS) for the
National Seminar TROPMET-2001, 6-9 February, 2001. IMS New
Delhi is also being funded for publication of its periodical
research journal, 'Vayu Mandal'.
IMD received an adhoc payment of Rs.12 crores
(Rupees Twelve crores) only from Airports Authority of India
towards cost of meteorological services rendered for aviation.
An amount of Rs.29,73,608/- has been collected from private
agencies on account of the calibration and certification of
surface meteorological instruments by the Instruments Division,
Meteorological observations recorded by the observatories
all over India are scrutinised, processed and archived by
National Data Centre (NDC), Pune, and used for various purposes
like construction, transport, irrigation, agriculture, industry,
aviation, development schemes, public safety measures, railways,
research etc., by various Governmental and private agencies.
The Meteorological data are also exchanged internationally
as per WMO commitment.
NDC, Pune also supplies various types of meteorological data
demanded by the users in India and abroad. About 132 lakh
records were retrieved and supplied to the users as shown
Foreign Parties 1
Indian Parties 102
An amount of Rs.5,82,096/- has been collected
towards the supply of above data.
Climatic Diagnostic Bulletins of India for the months of February
2000 to September 2000, and for the winter season (January-February)
and for pre-monsoon season (March-May) have been published.
Technical assistance is rendered to various Agricultural Departments,
Agricultural Universities, Research Institutes for installation
of soil moisture and ET observatories and their establishment,
logistics, maintenance, inspection and smooth running. Processed
Agro-Climatic data are supplied to end users like Ministry
of Agriculture, State Department of Agriculture, Scientists
of Agricultural Universities/ Institutes for planning agricultural
strategy and research work. Development and manufacture of
seismological instruments and accessories is undertaken in
the Departmental workshop. Besides, catering to the needs
of the National Observatories, the Organisation also makes
a limited supply of seismological instruments to other Institutions.
Technology Demonstration Projects Undertaken
in the Area of Socio-economic Development
250 Cyclone Warning Dissemination Systems (CWDS)
are operational for near real time dissemination of cyclone
warnings through satellite directly to the areas likely to
be affected. CWDS receivers have been installed along both
East and West coasts of the country. The service is unique
in the world and helps public in general and the local administration
during the cyclone season to take preventive measures for
disasters mitigation. A scheme to upgrade existing CWDS technology,
based on latest digital technology, is also likely to be introduced
Pre-harvest Crop Yield Forecast for Wheat crop for 5 States
for April and 2 States for May and total Wheat production
for the country as a whole were prepared and issued for April
and May 2000. Pre-harvest Crop Yield Forecast for Kharif Rice
for 15 States and total Rice production for the country as
a whole were prepared and issued for August to November 2000.
Agromet Advisory Service (AAS) bulletins are prepared weekly/biweekly
in consultation with State Agricultural experts and various
specialists for the benefit of farmers at 17 Agromet centres
in the country. These advisories are broadcast by AIR stations
in the respective regions in regional languages and also telecast
wherever the facilities exist.
Crop weather calendars for different crops are prepared to
use as a guiding tool for the preparation of Farmers' Weather
Bulletin issued daily by the different meteorological Centres
of the country.
Seven Pilot Balloon-cum-Micromet observatories are functioning
in West Rajasthan and adjoining areas to study the meteorological
aspects about the movements of desert locust swarms. Special
forecast of rainfall and upper wind and also locust sighting
observations are taken in Rajasthan and adjoining areas during
swarm incidence for anti-locust operation to be adopted by
the Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage
(PPQ&S), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
Dhubri II.b observatory has been upgraded to Class II.a observatory
with effect from 23.6.2000.
For the last 13 years, long range forecast
of monsoon rainfall have been issued using 16 parameter Power
Regression and Parametric models. Other models based on Dynamic
Stochastic Transfer (DST), Multiple Regression, Neural Network
and Principal Component Regression also have been used.
Long Range Forecast (LRF) issued by IMD in May 2000 indicated
normal monsoon for the year 2000 (Quantitatively 99% of LPA
+4% EME). For the country as a whole, the total rainfall during
monsoon season (June-September) was 92% of LPA making the
year 13th normal monsoon year in succession.
Long Range Forecasts have been reintroduced for 3 homogeneous
regions of India, viz., NW India, Peninsula and NE India.
Research in the fundamental and applied seismology is undertaken
by the Seismological Division. Special studies are also conducted
for important earthquakes occurring in and near India. Use
of Broad-band Digital data has improved such studies. The
design seismic coefficients for large and small dams are supplied
to the project authorities.
IMD team members of the 19th Indian Scientific Expedition
to Antarctica are wintering at Maitri since December 1999
in order to carry out the on-going Meteorological Programme.
Brewer Spectrophotometer has been installed for the measurement
of total ozone, NO2 and SO2 at Maitri, Antarctica.
Gujarat Earthquake of 26 January, 2001
A devastating earthquake of magnitude 6.9 on
Richter scale occurred on January 26, 2001 at 08 hours 46
minutes (IST) in the Kutch area of Gujarat. The epicentre
of the earthquake was located at Lat. 23.6° N, Long. 69.8°
E near Bhuj.
The earthquake was felt widely over many parts of the country
and caused extensive damage to property and loss of life in
Bhuj, Ahmedabad and other areas in Gujarat.
A number of aftershocks of lesser magnitude followed the main
shock. The largest aftershock of magnitude 5.9 occurred on
28th January 2001, at 06 hours 32 minutes IST. By 31st January
2001 more than 100 aftershocks have occurred.
A team of IMD scientists led by Dr. S.N. Bhattacharya, Deputy
Director General of Meteorology (Seismology), left for Bhuj
on the evening of 26th January for Bhuj and they set up three
temporary field observatories at Bhuj and one each at locations
60 km north of Bhuj and 40 km east of Bhuj. These observatories
are for the purpose of recording aftershock activity in the
During the pre-monsoon season, one cyclonic
storm formed in the Bay of Bengal on 30th March and was located
about 750 km south of Kolkata. The system moved in a north-north-easterly
direction and weakened in situ over the sea.
During the post-monsoon season, four cyclonic storms formed
in the Bay of Bengal. The first one formed on 16th October
over west central Bay at a distance of 500 km east-south-east
of Machilipatnam. The system moved in a westerly direction
and gradually weakened into a low pressure area in the sea
itself (off Andhra Pradesh coast) on 19th and became unimportant
The second disturbance formed over east central Bay and intensified
into a cyclonic storm in the early morning of 28th October.
The storm moved in a north-easterly direction and crossed
West Bengal coast, east of Sagar Islands and weakened into
a depression over Bangladesh on the same day. It subsequently
weakened over Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoam & Tripura (NMMT).
The third system, initially formed in southeast Bay of Bengal
on 26 November, and attained the intensity of cyclonic storm
on 27th. Moving in a westerly direction, it intensified into
a very severe cyclonic storm on 28th and crossed Tamil Nadu
coast close to Cuddalore and became unimportant later on.
The last cyclonic storm formed in southwest Bay of Bengal
in the morning of 25 December. The system intensified into
a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm on 26th. It crossed the coast
of Sri Lanka and emerged into the Gulf of Mannar on 27th.
Moving in a westerly direction the system finally crossed
south Tamil Nadu coast near Tuticorin on 28th and gradually